Interpreting Mixtures Using Allele Peak Areas

Mixture에서 봉우리 면적을 활용한 유전자 증거의 해석

Hong, Yu-Lim;Lee, Hyo-Jung;Lee, Jae-Won

  • Received : 20090600
  • Accepted : 20091200
  • Published : 2010.02.28


Mixture is that DNA profiles of samples contain material from more than one contributor, especially common in rape cases. In this situation, first, the method based on enumerating a complete set of possible genotype that may have generated the mixed DNA profile have been studied for interpreting DNA mixtures. More recently, the methods utilizing peak area information to calculate likelihood ratios have been suggested. This study is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of mixed forensic stains using quantitative peak area information and the method of forensic inference for extension of material from more than or equal to three contributors. Finally, the numerical example will be outlined.


STR(short tandem repeat);forensic inference;mixture;peak areas


  1. Brenner, C. H., Fimmers, R. and Baur, M. P. (1996). Likelihood ratios for mixed stains when the number of donors cannot be agreed, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 109, 218-219.
  2. Clayton, T. M., Whitaker, J. P., Sparkes, R. and Gill, P. (1998). Analysis and interpretation of mixed forensic stains using DNA STR profiling, Forensic Science International, 91, 55-70.
  3. Cowell, R., Lauritzen, S. and Mortera, J. (2007). Identification and separation of DNA mixtures using peak area information, Forensic Science International, 166, 28-34.
  4. Curran, M., Triggs, J. C. M., Buckleton, J. and Weir, B. S. (1999). Interpreting DNA mixtures in structured populations, Journal of Forensic Science, 44, 987-995.
  5. Dawid, J., Mortera, V. L., Pascali and Boxel, D. V. (2002). Probabilistic expert systems for forensic inference from genetic markers, Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 29, 577-595.
  6. Evett, I. W., Buffery, C., Willot, G. and Stoney, D. A. (1991). A guide to interpreting single locus profiles of DNA mixture in forensic cases, Journal of Forensic Science, 31, 41-47.
  7. Evett, l. W., Gill, P. and Lambert, J. A. (1998). Taking account of peak areas when interpreting mixed DNA profiles, Journal of Forensic Science, 43, 62-69.
  8. Gill, P., Sparkers, R. and Buckleton, J. (1998a). Interpreting of simple mixture of when artefacts such as stutters are present - with special reference to multiplex STRs used by the forensic Science Service, Forensic Science International, 89, 185-197.
  9. Gill, P., Sparkers, R, Pinchin, R., Clayton, T., Whitaker, J. and Buckleton, J. (1998b). Interpreting of simple STR mixtures using allele peak areas, Forensic Science International, 91, 41-53.
  10. Gill, P., Sparkers, R., Pinchin, R. and Kimpton, C. (1997). Development of guidelines to designate alleles using an STR multiplex system, Forensic Science International, 89, 185-197.
  11. Mortera, J., Dawid, A. P. and Lauritzen, S. L. (2003). Probabilistic expert systems for DNA mixture profiling, Theoretical Population Biology, 63, 191-205.
  12. Perlin, M. W. and Szabady, B. (2001). Linear mixture analysis: A mathematical approach to resolving mixed DNA samples, Journal of Forensic Science, 46, 1372-1378.
  13. Wang, T., Xue, N. and Wickenheiser, R. (2002). Least square deconvoluton (LSD): A new way of resolving STR/DNA mixture samples, in: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Humna Identification, October 7-10, Phoenix, AZ.
  14. Weir, B. S., Triggs, C. M., Starling, L., Stowell, L. I., Walsh, K. A. J. and Buckleton, J. (1997). Interpreting DNA mixtures, Journal of Forensic Science, 42, 213-222.