- Volume 12 Issue 1
This paper investigates the development of attitudes to historic conservation from the turn of the nineteenth century when certain theoretical opinions on the protection of buildings began to be developed, through the time when the Venice Charter was established, to recent international trends in historic conservation. This paper also explores the contribution of these attitudes and ideas towards an international approach for historic conservation. This paper demonstrates that the Venice Charter is the acme of progress in the European stance towards restoration, reflecting European values of architecture and its conservation, and thus it is not sufficiently 'universal' to be unequivocally applied in non-Western countries. Secondly, recent international trends in historic conservation subvert the notions of Western cultural hegemony which have permeated global conservation practices, and accept the diversity of value criteria for heritage and its conservation in different cultural context. Thirdly, this paper argues that the conservation approaches in Asian societies need to move further into the retention and extension of the spirit and naturalistic sensibilities inherent in the architecture. Historic conservation is an expression of different cultural values attached to heritage resources by different societies. For conservation program to be effective, conservation should take place within a socio-cultural context.
- Agrawal, O. P.(1975) 'An Asian View of Conservation', Museum, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 157-160.
- Australia ICOMOS(1979, revised in 1999) The Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter).
- Boito, Camillo(1986) Ouestioni practiche di belle arti, restauri, concorsi,legislazione, professione, inseanamento, Hoepli, Milano, 1893; In Jukka Jokilehto, 'A History of Architectural Conservation,' Ph.D thesis, University of York.
- Brooks, Graham(1992) 'The Burra Charter: Australia's Methodology for Conserving Cultural Heritage,' Places, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 84-88
- China ICOMOS(2005) The Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China (The China Principles)
- Erder, Cevat(1977) The Venice Charter Should be Protected as an Historic Monument', The Journal of Faculty of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp.167-190.
- Erder, Cevat(1986) Our Architectural Heritage: From Conscious to Conservation, Unesco, Paris.
- Gentleman's Magazine(1798) LXVIII, cited in Nikolaus Pevsner, 'Scrape and Anti-scrape'. In Jane Fawcett(1976) The Future of the Past, Cox & Wyman Ltd., London,
- ICOMOS(1964) The International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Ancient monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter)
- ICOMOS(1994) The Nara Document on Authenticity
- ICOMOS(1999) The Preservation of Historic Timber Structures.
- Jokilehto, Jukka(1986) 'A History of Architectural Conservation' Ph. D thesis, University of York.
- Kain, Roger(1981) 'Introduction: Definitions, Attitudes and Debates'. In Roger Kain (ed), Planning for Conservation, Mansell Publishing, London.
- Lewis, Miles(1983) 'Conservation: A Regional Point of View' In Max Bourke, Miles Lewis, Bal Saini (eds), Protecting the Past for the Future, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra
- Locke, W. J.(1904) 'The Sixth International Congress of Architects, Madrid, 1904, Madrid; Report of the Secretary of the Institute', Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects (London), Vol. XI, Series III, pp.343-346.
- Logan, William(2004) 'Introduction: Voice from the periphery: the Burra Charter in Context' Historic Environment, Vol. 18 No 1, pp.2-8
- Madsen, Stefan Tschudi(1976) Restoration and Anti-Restoration: A Study in English Restoration Philosophy, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo
- Milner, John(1798) A Dissertation of the Modern Style of Altering Ancient Cathedral as Exemplified in the Cathedral of Salisbury, J. Nichols, London.
- Oliver, Paul(1982) 'Cultural Issues in Conservation Implementation'. In R. Zetter (ed), Conservation of Buildings in Developing Countries, Oxford Polytechnic Department of Town Planning, Working Paper No. 60, pp.2-13
- Prosper, Mrime(1845) Rapport Sur la Restauration de Notre Dame de Paris, Paris
- Ruskin, John(1886) The Seven Lamps of Architecture, George Allen, Kent
- Scott, George Gilbert(1850) A Plea for the Faithful Restoration of Our Ancient Churches, London
- Scott, George Gilbert(1861-62) 'On the Conservation of Ancient Architectural Monuments and Remains', Sessional Papers of the Royal Institute of British Architects, pp.65-84
- Scott, George Gilbert(1864-65) 'General Advice to Promoters of the Restoration of Ancient Buildings,' Sessional Papers of the Royal Institute of British Architects, pp.1-4
- Sullivan, Sharon(2001) A well-baked Charter, Historic Environment, Vol. 15, No.3, pp.11-19
- The Athens Charter of 1931
- The Italy's Charter of Restoration of 1931
- UNESCO(2001) The Hoi An Protocols for Best Conservation Practice in Asia
- Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene-Emmanuel(1990) The Foundation of Architecture: Selections from the Dictionnaire Raisonne, George Braziller, New York
- Wei, Chen and Aass(1989) Andreas, 'Heritage Conservation: East and West', ICOMOS Information, No. 3, July/Sep., pp. 3-8.
- Cultural Heritage Development in China: A Contextualized Trajectory or a Global–Local Nexus? vol.23, pp.02, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0940739116000102
- From appropriation to conservation: Mughal monuments, colonial tourism and the Dak Bungalow pp.1470-3610, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1481133