Effect of Recreational Exercise on Cognition, Depression, Dynamic Balance and Leg Strength in Elderly Women

레크리에이션 운동프로그램이 여성노인의 인지기능과 우울, 동적 평형성 및 하지근력에 미치는 영향

  • 김난수 (부산가톨릭대학교 보건과학대학 물리치료학과)
  • Received : 2009.08.24
  • Accepted : 2009.10.05
  • Published : 2010.03.28


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of recreational exercise on cognition, depression, dynamic balance and leg strength in elderly women. This study was nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. Subjects were divided into two group(exercise group=14, control group=13). Experimental group conducted recreational exercise program for eight-week. Cognition was assessed by K-WAIS(object assembly & digit symbol) and depression were assessed by questionnaire. Dynamic balance(DB) and leg strength(LS) were assessed by 244cm up & go and sit to stand respectively. The collected data analyzed by Wilcoxon singed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test. The exercise group significantly improved cognition(object assembly) and DB, but control group significantly reduced DB. DB in exercise group were significantly greater than in control group after eight-week. The program was effective on cognition and dynamic balance in elderly women.


Recreational Exercise;Elderly Women;Cognition;Depression;Dynamic Balance;Leg Strength


  1. 통계청, 고령자 통계, 2006.
  2. WHO, Growing Older. Staying Well. Ageing and physical activity in everyday life, World Health Organization, 1998.
  3. National Blueprint, Increasing physical activity among adults age 50 and older, J Aging Phys Activity, Vol.9(suppl), pp.1-28, 2001
  4. 보건복지가족부, 2007 국민건강통계: 국민건강영양조사 제4기 1차년도, 2008.
  5. 김지희, 도시고령자의 운동욕구요인 분석 연구, 경희대학교대학원 석사학위논문, 1992.
  6. 김양례, "노인의 여가활동유형과 인지기능 및 일상생활수행능력의 관계", 체육과학연구, 제18권, 제3호, pp.148-158, 2007.
  7. National Therapeutic Recreation Society(NTRS), NTRS Board of Directors, 2000.
  8. N. T. Lautenschlager and O. P. Almeida, "Physical activity and cognition in old age," Curr Opin Psychiatry, Vol.19, pp.190-193, 2006.
  9. R. K. Dishman, H. R. Berthoud, F. W. Booth, C. W. Cotman, V. R. Edgerton, M. R. Fleshner, S. C. Gandevia, F. Gomez-Pinilla, B. N. Greenwood, C. H. Hillman, A. F. Kramer, B. E. Levin, T. H. Moran, A. A. Russo-Neustadt, J. D. Salamone, J. D. Van Hoomissen, C. E. Wade, D. A. York, and M. J. Zigmond, "Neurobiology of exercise," Obesity, Vol.14, pp.345-356, 2006.
  10. P. Heyn, B. C. Abreu, and K. J. Ottenbacher, "The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis," Arch Phys Med Rehabil., Vol.85, No.10, pp.1694-1704, 2004.
  11. B. M. van Gelder, M. A. Tijhuis, S. Kalmijn, S. Giampaoli, A. Nissinen, and D. Kromhout, "Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men," Neurology, Vol.63, pp.2316-2321, 2004.
  12. A. L. Dunn, M. H. Trivedi, and H. A. O'Neal, "Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety," Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol.33, No.6, pp.S587-S597, 2001.
  13. A. L. Dunn, M. H. Trivedi, J. B. Kampert, C. G. Clark, and H. O. Chambliss, "Exercise treatment for depression: efficacy and dose response," Am J Prev Med. Vol.28, No.1, pp.140-141, 2005.
  14. E. B. Larson and L. Wang, "Exercise, aging, and Alzheimer Disease," Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, Vol.18, No.2, pp54-56, 2004.
  15. 김영수, 강성구, "노인의 신체활동에 따른 신체적성 및 인지기능간의 관계", 한국체육학회지, 제39권, 제4호, pp.227-237, 2000.
  16. 김난수, 배영숙, 엄기매, "고유수용성 운동이 여성노인의 보행속도, 일상생활활동 및 우울에 미치는 영향", 한국콘텐츠학회, 제9권, 제2호, pp.233-241, 2009.
  17. 윤재섭, 강열우, 박재성, 치료레크리에이션 입문서, 세종출판사, 2003.
  18. 김효정, 치료레크리에이션 프로그램이 노인의 우울 감소에 미치는 영향, 동덕여자대학교 석사학위논문, 2002.
  19. G. Borg, Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales, Human Kinetics, 1998.
  20. 임상심리학회, K-WAIS 웩슬러 성인용 지능검사 실시요강, 한국가이던스, 2007.
  21. 기백석, "노인 우울 척도 단축형의 표준화 예비연구", 신경정신의학, 제35권, 제2호, pp.298-307, 1996.
  22. R. E. Rikli and C. J. Jones, Senior fitness test manual, Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 2001.
  23. A. F. Kramer, K. I. Erickson, and S. J. Colcombe, "Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain," J Appl Physiol, Vol.101, No.4, pp.1237-1242, 2006.
  24. 이규문, 최종환, 김현주, "규칙적인 운동이 노인들의 인지능력에 미치는 영향", 발육발달, 제10권 제1호, pp.81-90, 2002.
  25. 오유선, 신윤정, 한경숙, "노인 운동프로그램이 체력, 정신건강 및 인지능력에 미치는 영향", 한국발육발달학회지, 제15권, 제4호, pp.295-302, 2007.
  26. M. Teychenne, K. Ball, and J. Salmon, "Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review, Preventive Medicine," Vol.46, No.5, pp.397-411, 2008.
  27. C. F. Emery and M. Gatz, "Psychological and cognitive effects of an exercise program for community-residing older adults," Gerontologist, Vol.30, pp.184-188, 1990.
  28. P. J. Chung, C. J. Chiou, and F. H. Chou, "Relationships between health status, depression and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans," Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol.49, No.2, pp.215-219, 2009.
  29. D. E. Barnes, K. Yaffe, W. A. Satariano, and I. B. Tager, "A longitudinal study of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in healthy older adults," J Am Geriatr Soc, Vol.51, pp.459-465, 2003.
  30. E. E. Baum, D. Jarjoura, A. E. Polen, D. Faur, and G. Rutecki, "Effectiveness of a group exercise program in a Long-Term Care Facility: A randomized pilot trial," Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Vol.4, No.2, pp.74-80, 2003.
  31. 박장근, 신희진, "여성노인의 신체적성 향상을 위한 치료레크리에이션의 효과", 한국사회체육학회지, 제14권, 제1호, pp.239-253, 2000.

Cited by

  1. Effects of the Integrative Cognitive Training Program on Elderly Cognitive Function vol.14, pp.9, 2014,
  2. Literature Review for the Effects of Physical Activity on Musculoskeletal Outcomes in Community-dwelling Older Adults vol.20, pp.4, 2014,
  3. The Effects of an Exercise Program using a Resident Volunteer as a Lay Health Leader for Elders' Physical Fitness, Cognitive Function, Depression, and Quality of Life vol.24, pp.3, 2013,