Quality Changes in Apple Juice Containing Pulp upon Sterilization by Hot Water

열수 살균 조건에 따른 과육 함유 사과주스의 품질 변화

  • Received : 2009.11.16
  • Accepted : 2010.03.05
  • Published : 2010.04.30

Abstract

We investigated the physicochemical quality characteristics of apple juice upon sterilization using hot water, and under various storage conditions. None of sugar content, acidity, or pH differed significantly among various sterilization conditions but chromaticity was considerably reduced in sterilized juice compared with control material. The chromaticity of non-sterilized juice decreased significantly after sterilization compared with material supplemented with vitamin C (0.1%, w/v). Fungi, yeast, and aerobic bacteria were detected in juice sterilized at $65^{\circ}C$ for 10 or 20 min, but no microorganisms were observed in juice sterilized by other procedures. Vitamin C content affected sterilization temperature to a greater extent than sterilization time. When juice was stored at $4^{\circ}C$ or $37^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks after application of different sterilization conditions, almost no change in acidity, sugar content, or pH was observed, regardless of sterilization mode or storage period. However, chromaticity decreased with longer storage. Vitamin C levels were reduced by higher sterilization temperatures. However, longer storage periods had the greatest effect on reduction of vitamin C levels, which tended toward lower values regardless of differences in sterilization and storage conditions. In sensory evaluation tests, all of taste, color, and overall preference were highest for juice sterilized at $75^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. The ASC value was low at a storage temperature of $4^{\circ}C$ and at high sterilization temperatures, and a long storage period was associated with a greater ASC value. Thus, the quality of apple juice was excellent when juice was hot water-sterilized, with additional vitamin C, at $75^{\circ}C$ for 20 min, followed by storage at $4^{\circ}C$.

References

  1. Hwang, T.Y., Son, S.M., Lee, C.Y. and Moon, K.D. (2001) Quality changes of fresh-cut packaged fuji apples during storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 33, 469-473
  2. Hong, H.D., Kim, S.S., Kim, K.T. and Choi., H.D. (2001) Quality changes of apple juice concentrates with different storage temperature. Korean J. Food Nutr., 14, 28-33.
  3. 한국 식품 개발 연구원. (1998) 국내산 사과주스 제품의 수출증대를 위한 고품질화 및 제품의 다양화 연구보고서. p. 1-238
  4. Kim, T.R., Whang, H.J. and Yoon, K.R. (1996) Mineral contents of Korean apple juice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 28, 90-98
  5. Elkins, E.R., Matthys, A., Lyon, R. and Huang, C.J. (1996) Characterization of commercially produces apple juice concentrate. J. Food Compisit. Anal., 9, 43-56 https://doi.org/10.1006/jfca.1996.0006
  6. Kobatakem, M., Kurata, H. and Komagata, K. (1978) Microbiological studies on fruit juice(I) Microorganisms found in commercial orange and apple juice. J. Food Hyg. Soc., 19, 449-456 https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.19.449
  7. Babsky, N.E., Toribio, J.L. and Lozano, J.E. (1986) Influence of storage on the composition of clarified apple juice concentrate. J. Food Sci., 51, 564-567 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13879.x
  8. Sapers, G.M. (1992) Chitosan enhances control of enzymatic browning in apple and pear juice by fiIteration. J. Food Sci., 57, 1192-1193 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb11296.x
  9. Janovitz-Klapp, A.H., Richard. F.C., Goupy. P.M. and Nicolas, J.J. (1990) Kinetics studies on apple polyphenol oxidase. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 1437-1441 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00097a001
  10. Meydav, S., Saguy, I. and Kopelman, I.J. (1977) Browning determination in citrus products. J. Agric. Food Chem., 25, 602-604 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60211a030
  11. Joo, H.K., Cho, K.S., Cho, S.K., Park, C.K. and Ma, S.C. (1989) Analysis method of food. Yoolim Publishing Co., p. 355-358
  12. Benson, H.J. (1990) Microbiological application, A lavoratory manual in general microbiology. Fifth Ed., WM. C. Brown Publishers, Penn., USA, p. 185
  13. Jang, K.W., Hur, J.K., Kiln, S.K. and Baek, Y.J. (1996) Effects of pasteurization and storage temperature on the quality of orange juice. Koean J. Food Sci. Technol., 28, 8-14
  14. Kim, K.T., Kim, S.S., Choi, H.D., Hong, H.D. and Lee, Y.T. (1996) Changes in chemical compositions of fruitvegetable mixed juice sterilized at various conditions during storage. Korean J. Food Nutr., 9, 314-318
  15. Hur, Y.J. and Hwang, I.K. (2002) The stablity of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in milk by heat treatments. Korean J. Soc. Food Cookery Sci., 18, 487-494
  16. Hong, H.D., Kim, S.S., Kim, K.T. and Choi, H.D. (1999) Change in quality of domestic apple juice concentrates during long-term storage. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol., 42, 235-239
  17. Lee, N.K., Yoon, J.Y. and Lee, S.R. (1995) Changes in heavy metals and vitamin C contents during the storage of canned and bottled orange juice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 27, 742-747
  18. Nagy, S. and Lee, H.S. (1988) Quality changes and nonenzymatic browning intermediates in grapefruit juice during storage. J. Food Sci., 53, 168-172 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb10201.x
  19. Shin, J.K., Ha, K.Y., Pyun, Y.R., Choi, M.S. and Chung, M.S. (2007) Pasteurization of carrot juice by high voltage pulsed electric fields with square wave pulse and quality change during storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 39, 506-514