- Volume 29 Issue 3
Many studies on safety issues of human-machine interaction are being conducted, especially taking emergency situations into consideration. In light of this view, the importance of objective and reliable measurement of users' reactions under emergency situations is becoming more important than ever in reflecting such issues in the design of everyday things. However, despite the need to consider the human-machine interactions and human performances at the design stage, there were few studies which considered human performances and behaviors under emergency situations. This study is about an evaluation method and design guide to include such human performances under emergency situations during human-machine interactions. This is achieved through an experiment where operators are instructed to press the emergency button at an experimentally designed location under a random emergency situation. By analyzing the results in a human factors perspective, the response time and the accuracy of the operators' behaviors are explained. Analysis revealed that in designing the center fascia for automobiles, there is a tradeoff between response time and accuracy, and the optimal size of buttons differ in each part of the center fascia. This method is expected to be applicable to industrial situations to derive optimal position for emergency buttons.
Button layout;Human performance;Emergency situation;Response time;Response accuracy
- Campbell, J. L., Rogers, S. P. and Spiker, V. A., Development of a Handbook of Human Factors Design Objectives for Automotive Displays. Phase 2: Description of the Handbook Development Process, and Proposed Content, Format. And Organization. Hughes Aircraft Company, Culver City, CA, 1990.
- Campbell, J. L. and Walls, W. F., Head-up Display (HUD) Design Objectives. Anacapa Sciences, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, 1992.
- Campbell, J. L., The development of human factors design guidelines, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol. 18 No.5, (pp. 363-371), 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8141(95)00098-4
- Charlton, S. G. and O'Brien, T. G., Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation, 2nd ed., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, (pp. 341-362), 2002.
- Donald, D., Be warned! A review of curve warning signs and curve advisory speeds, ARRB Transport Research Report No ARR 304. ARRB Transport Research, Melbourne, 1998.
- Eby, D. W. and Kostyniuk, L. P., Driver distraction and crashes: An assessment of crash databases and review of the literature, (Report No. UMTRI-2003-12), University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute: Ann Arbor, MI, 2003.
- Fischer, J., Testing the effect of road traffic signs' informational value on driver behavior, Human Factors, Vol. 34 No.2, (pp. 231-237), 1992. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872089203400208
- Frances E. Mount, Mihriban Whitmore, Sheryl L. Stealey, Evaluation of Neutral Body Posture on Shuttle Mission STS-57 (SPACEHAB-1), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington DC, 2003.
- Glaze, A. L. and Ellis, J. M., Pilot Study of Distracted Drivers, Virginia Commonwealth University: Richmond, VA, 2003.
- Klann, M., Malizia, A., Chittaro, L., Cuevas, I. A. and Levialdi, S., HCI for emergencies, Proceedings of the CHI '08 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (pp. 3945-3948), 2008.
- Radix, C. L., Robinson, P. and Nurse, P., Extension of Fitts' Law to Modeling Motion Performance in Man-Machine Interfaces, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and cybernetics, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1999.
- Parker, D., Reason, J. T., Manstead, A. S. R. and Stradling, S. G., Driving errors, driving violations, and accident involvement, Ergonomics, Vol. 38(5), (pp.1036-1048), 1995. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139508925170
- Summala, H. and Hietamaki, J., Drivers' immediate responses to traffic signs. Ergonomics 27(2), (pp. 205-216), 1984. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138408963478
- Spiker, V. A., Campbell, J. L. and Walls, W. F., Guidelines for Job Card Development by Utilities and Plant Personnel (RP3111-05). Anacapa Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA, 1993.
- Spiker, V. A. and Campbell, J. L., Strategies and Tactics for Effective Mission Rehearsal: Application of Principles from Psychology and Other Relevant Domains. Human Resources Directorate Aircrew Training Research Division, Mesa, AZ, 1994.
- Stevens, A., Quimby, A., Board, A., Kersloot, T. and Burns, P., Design guidelines for safety of in-vehicle information systems, Transport Research Laboratory, 2002.
- Stevens, A. and Minton, R., In-vehicle distraction and fatal accidents in England and Wales, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, (pp.539-545), 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(00)00068-3
- Stutts, J. C., Reinfurt, D. W. and Rodgman, E. A., "The role of driver distraction in crashes: An analysis of 1995-1999 Crashworthiness Data System data". In 45th Annual Proceedings Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, AAAM: Des Plaines, IA, (pp.287-301), 2001.
- Thomas A. Ranney, Transportation Research Center, Inc., Driver Distraction: A Review of the Current State-of-Knowledge, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Washington DC, 2008.
- Wang, J. S., Knipling, R. R. and Goodman, M. J., The role of driver inattention in crashes: New statics from the 1995 Crashworthiness Data System, In 40th Annual Proceedings Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, AAAM: Des Plaines, IA, (pp.377-392), 1996.