• Lee, In-Duk (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University) ;
  • Im, Myung-Shin (Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University) ;
  • Urata, Yuji (Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University)
  • Received : 2010.04.29
  • Accepted : 2010.06.04
  • Published : 2010.06.30


We outline our GRB afterglow observation program using the 1-m telescope at Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO), and report the first observations of the GRB afterglows. During the 2007B semester, we performed follow-up imaging obsrevations of 6 GRBs, and succeeded in detecting four GRB afterglows (GRB 071010B, GRB 071018, GRB 071020, and GRB 071025) while placing useful upper limits on the light curves of the other GRBs. Among the observed events, we find that three events are special and interesting. GRB 071010B has a light curve which has an unusually long jet break time of 11.8 days. For GRB 071025, its red R-I(~2) color suggests that it is likely to be at z~5. GRB 071020 has a light curve which shows a clear brightening at 0.3-1 days after the burst, where our LOAO data play a crucial role by providing an unambiguous evidence for the brightening. These are the first successful detections of GRB afterglows by a facility owned and operated by a Korean institution, demonstrating the usefulness of the 1-m telescope for transient phenomena such as GRBs up to very high redshift.


gamma-ray burst: general;gamma-ray burst: individual;methods: observational


  1. Akerlof, C. W., & Swan, H. F. 2007, An Estimation of the Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Apparent Optical Brightness Distribution Function, ApJ, 671, 1868
  2. Amati, L., et al. 2002, Intrinsic Spectra and Energetics of BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, A&A, 390, 81
  3. Barraud, C., Atteia, J. L., Olive, J. F., Hurley, K., Ricker, G., Lamb, D. Q., Kawai, N., Vanderspek, R., Sakamoto, T., & The Hete-2 Science Team, 2004, Spectral Analysis of 50 GRBs Detected by HETE-2, AIPC, 727, 81
  4. Bertin, E., & Arnouts, S. 1996, SExtractor: Software for Source Extraction, A&AS, 117, 393
  5. Bloom, J. S., Frail, D. A., & Kulkarni, S. R. 2003, Gamma- Ray Burst Energetics and the Gamma-Ray Burst Hubble Diagram: Promises and Limitations, ApJ, 594, 674
  6. Campana, S., et al. 2006, The association of GRB 060218 with a Supernova and the Evolution of the Shock Wave, Nature, 442, 1008
  7. Cenko, S. B., Cucchiara, A., Fox, D. B., Berger, E., & Price, P. A. 2007, GRB 071010B: Gemini Spectroscopic Observations, GCN, 6888, 1
  8. Eichler, D., Livio, M., Piran, T., & Schramm, D. N. 1989, Nucleosynthesis, Neutrino Bursts and Gamma-Rays from Coalescing Neutron Stars, Nature, 340, 126
  9. Firmani, C., Ghisellini, G., Avila-Reese, V., & Ghirlanda, G. 2006, Discovery of a Tight Correlation among the Prompt Emission Properties of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts, MNRAS, 37, 185
  10. Fishman, G. J., & Meegan, C. A. 1995, Gamma-Ray Bursts, ARA&A, 33, 415
  11. Frail, D. A., et al. 2001, Beaming in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for a Standard Energy Reservoir, ApJ, 562L, 55
  12. Gehrels, N., et al. 2004, The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, ApJ, 611, 1005
  13. Galama, T. J., et al. 1998, An Unusual Supernova in the Error Box of the $\gamma$-Ray Burst of 25 April 1998, Nature, 395, 670
  14. Ghirlanda, G., Ghisellini, G., & Lazzati, D. 2004, The Collimation-Corrected Gamma-Ray Burst Energies Correlate with the Peak Energy of Their $vF_v$ Spectrum, ApJ, 616, 331
  15. Greco, G., Bad'in, D., Beskin, G., Bartolini, C., Karpov, S., Guarnieri, A., Piccioni, A., & Biryukov, A. 2006, GRBs with Optical Afterglow and Known Redshift: A Statistical Study, NCimB, 121, 1488
  16. Han, W., Mack, P., Lee, C.-U., Park, J.-H., Jin, H., Kim, S.-L., Kim, H.-I., Yuk, I.-S, Lee, W.-B., & Bradstreet, M. 2005, Development of a 1-m Robotic Telescope System, PASJ, 57, 821
  17. Henden, A. 2007, GRB 071010B, BVRcIc Field Calibration, GCN, 6909, 1
  18. Hjorth, j., et al. 2003, A Very Energetic Supernova Associated with the $\gamma$-Ray Burst of 29 March 2003, Nature, 423, 847
  19. Holland, S. T., Sakamoto, T., Beardmore, A. P., Norris, J., Page, K. L., Barthelmy, S. D., Burrows, D. N., Roming, P., & Gehrels, N. 2007, Swift Observation of GRB 071020, GCNR, 94, 2
  20. Huang, K. Y., et al. 2005, Optical Afterglow Observations of the Unusual Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 040924, ApJ, 628L, 93
  21. Huang, K. Y., et al. 2007, Multicolor Shallow Decay and Chromatic Breaks in the GRB 050319 Optical Afterglow, ApJ, 654L, 25
  22. Im, M., Lee, I., & Urata, Y. 2007a, GRB 071010B: Optical Detection, GCN, 6897, 1
  23. m, M., Lee, I., & Urata, Y. 2007b, GRB 071020: Fading Slowly?, GCN, 6970, 1
  24. Im, M., Lee, I., & Urata, Y. 2007c, GRB 071025: I-Detection, r-Dropout?, GCN, 6991, 1
  25. Im, M, et al. in preparation
  26. Iwamoto, K., et al. 1998, A Hypernova Model for the Supernova Associated with the $\gamma$-Ray Burst of 25 April 1998, Natue, 395, 672
  27. Jakobsson, P., Vreeswijk, P. M., Hjorth, J., Malesani, D., Fynbo, J. P. U., & Thoene, C. C. 2007, GRB 071020: VLT Spectroscopy, GCN, 6952, 1
  28. Jiang, L., Bian, F., Fan, X. 2007, GRB 071025: SQIID JHK Photometry, GCN, 7003, 1
  29. Johannesson, G., Bjornsson, G., & Gudmundsson, E. H. 2006, Afterglow Light Curves and Broken Power Laws: A Statistical Study, ApJ, 640L, 5
  30. Kann, D. A., Hoegner, C., & Filgas, R. 2007, GRB 071010B: Bright OT Confirmed with TLS, GCN, 6884, 1
  31. Kann, D. A., Hoegner, C., & Filgas, R. 2007, GRB 071010B: TLS 2nd Epoch, Refined Analysis, GCN, 6918, 1
  32. Kann, D. A., Laux, V.,& Filgas, R. 2007, GRB 071010B: TLS 3rd Epoch-Finally a Break?, GCN, 6923, 1
  33. Kann, D. A., Laux, V., Filgas, R., Oksanen, A., Covino, S., D'Elia, V., Lorenzi, V., Decarli, R., & Kotilainen, J. 2007, GRB 071010B: Light Curve Break Confirmed, GCN, 6935, 1
  34. Klebesadel, R. W., Strong, I. B., & Olson, R. A. 1973, Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts of Cosmic Origin, ApJ, 182L, 85
  35. Krimm, H. A., Beardmore, A., Cummings, J. R., Barthelmy, S. D., Burrows, D. N., Gehrels, N., & Roming, P. W. A. 2007, Swift Observations of GRB 071018, GCNR, 96, 2
  36. Lee, I., Im, M., & Urata, Y. 2007, GRB 071101: LOAO B, V, R, I Observation, GCN, 7033, 1
  37. Lee, W. H., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., & Granot, J. 2005, A Compact Binary Merger Model for the Short, Hard GRB 050509b, ApJ, 630L, 165
  38. Liang, E., & Zhang, B. 2005, Model-Independent Multivariable Gamma-Ray Burst Luminosity Indicator and Its Possible Cosmological Implications, ApJ, 633, 611
  39. Malesani, D., et al. 2004, SN 2003lw and GRB 031203: A Bright Supernova for a Faint Gamma-Ray Burst, ApJ, 609L, 5
  40. Markwardt, C., Kennea, J., Mangano, V., Barthelmy, S. D., Burrows, D. N., Roming, P., & Gehrels, N. 2007, Swift Observations of GRB 071010B, GCNR, 92, 1
  41. Marshall, F. E., Barthelmy, S. D., Burrows, D. N., Roming, P., Sbarufatti, B., & Gehrels, N. 2007, Swift Observations of GRB 071011, GCNR, 93, 1
  42. McBreen, S., et al. 2007, Swift Observation of GRB 071101, GCNR, 101, 1
  43. Mundell, C. G., et al. 2007, The Remarkable Afterglow of GRB 061007: Implications for Optical Flashes and GRB Fireballs, ApJ, 660, 489
  44. Oates, S. R., et al. 2009, A Statistical Study of GammaRay Burst Afterglows Measured by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope, MNRAS, 395, 490
  45. Oksanen, A., Templeton, M., & Henden, A. 2007, GRB 071010B Optical Photometry, GCN, 6892, 1
  46. Paczyrisky, B. 1986, Gamma-Ray Bursters at Cosmological Distances, ApJ, 308L, 43
  47. Pagani, C., Racusin, J. L., Kuin, N. P. M., Holland, S. T., Barthelmy, S. D., & Gehrels, N. 2007, Swift Observation of GRB 071025, GCNR, 97, 1
  48. Rykoff, E. S., Yuan, F., Schaefer, B. E., Swan, H., & Quimby, R. 2007, GRB 071025: ROTSE-III Refined Analysis, GCN, 6992, 1
  49. Sari, R., & Piran, T. 1997, Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts: Internal Versus External Shocks, MNRAS, 287, 110
  50. Sari, R, Piran, T., & Narayan, R. 1998, Spectra and Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows, ApJ, 497L, 17
  51. Simon, V., Hudec, R., Pizzichini, G. & Masetti, N. 2004, Analysis of The Optical Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts by Color Indices, BaltA, 13, 253
  52. Stanek, K. Z., et al. 2003, Spectroscopic Discovery of the Supernova 2003dh Associated with GRB 030329, ApJ, 591L, 17
  53. Templeton, M., Kann, D. A., Oksanen, A., & Henden, A. 2007, GRB 071010B Correction to GCN 6892 Optical Observations, GCN, 6903, 1
  54. Uhm, Z. L, & Beloborodov, A. M. 2007, On the Mechanism of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows, ApJ, 665L, 93
  55. Urata, Y., et al. 2003, Multiband Optical Follow-up Observations of GRB 020813 at the Kiso and Bisei Observatories, ApJ, 595L, 21
  56. Urata, Y., Huang, K. Y., Ip, W. H., Qiu, Y., Hu, J. Y., Zhou, Xn., Tamagawa, T., Onda, K., & Makishima, K. 2005, GRB Follow-up Observations in the EastAsian Region, NCimC, 28, 775
  57. Urata, Y., et al. 2007a, Testing the External-Shock Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Late-Time Simultaneous Optical and X-Ray Afterglows, ApJ, 668L, 95
  58. Urata, Y., et al. 2007b, Very Early Multicolor Observations of the Plateau Phase of the GRB 041006 Afterglow, ApJ, 655L, 81
  59. Urata, Y., et al. 2007c, A Multiband Study of the Optically Dark GRB 051028, PASJ, 59L, 29
  60. Urata, Y., Im, Huang, L., Im, M., Lee, I., et al. 2009, Optical Afterglow Jet Break with Known $E_{peak}$, Swift GRB GRB071010B: outlier of the $E^{src}_{peak}-E_\gamma$ and $E_{iso}-E^{src}_{peak}-t^{src}_{jet}$ relations, ApJ, 706L, 183
  61. Xin, L. P. 2007, GRB 071010B: Optical Observations of EST, GCN, 6924, 1
  62. Yonetoku, D., Murakami, T., Nakamura, T., Yamazaki, R., Inoue, A. K., & Ioka, K. 2004, Gamma-Ray Burst Formation Rate Inferred from the Spectral Peak Energy-Peak Luminosity Relation, ApJ, 609, 935
  63. Xin, L. P., Zhai, M., Qiu, y. L., Wei, J. Y, Hu, J. Y., Deng, J. S., Wang, J. Urata, Y., & Zheng, W. K. 2007, GRB 071020: Xinglong TNT Optical Afterglow Observations, GCN, 6956, 1
  64. Zeh, A., Klose, S., Kann, D. A. 2006, Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Light Curves in the Pre-Swift Era: A Statistical Study, ApJ, 637, 889

Cited by

  1. A tale of two GRB-SNe at a common redshift of z=0.54 vol.413, pp.1, 2011,
  2. Probing the nature of high-z short GRB 090426 with its early optical and X-ray afterglows vol.410, pp.1, 2011,
  4. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope vol.2015, 2015,
  5. FOCAL REDUCER FOR CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse) vol.46, pp.4, 2013,
  7. ALMA and RATIR observations of GRB 131030A 2017,
  8. DUST PROPERTIES IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 071025 ATz∼ 5 vol.741, pp.1, 2011,
  9. Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (CQUEAN)1 vol.124, pp.918, 2012,