- Volume 10 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Effects of Mild Hypothermia and Aquatic Exercise on Functional Activity after Spinal Cord Injury in the Rats
백서의 척수손상 후 중강도 저체온법과 수중운동이 운동기능에 미치는 영향
- Received : 2009.11.30
- Accepted : 2010.04.08
- Published : 2010.04.28
This study was designed to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and Aquatic exercise on function Activity after experimental Spinal Cord Injury(SCI) rats. Experimental groups were divided into the control group (non-treatment after SCI induction), group I(hypothermia after SCI induction), group II(exercise after SCI induction), group III(hypothermia and exercise after SCI induction). After operation, rats were examined neurological motor behavior test at 3, 7, 14, 21 days and Immunohistochemical assessment at 3, 7, 21 days.Each other 14 days were a statistically significant difference between control group and group II, III(p<.001) in BBB scale, between control group and group III(p<.05) in grid walk test. In mmunohistochemical assessment, there was appeared highest express in group III. Based on these results, mild hypothermia and exercise was effected functional Activity after SCI.
SCI;Mild Hypothermia;Aquatic Exercise
- D. X. Ban, X. H. Kong, S. Q. Feng, G. Z. Ning, J. T. Chen, and S. F. Guo, "Intraspinal cord graft of autologous activated Schwann cells efficiently promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery after rat's spinal cord injury," Brain Res, Vol.1256, No.23, pp.149-161, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.11.098
- 보건복지부, "장애인 실태조사, 정책보고서, 2006-4", 2005.
- G. Schwartz and M, G. Fehlings, "Secondary injury mechanisms of spinal cord trauma: a novel therapeutic approach for the management of secondary pathophysiology with the sodium channel blocker riluzole," Prog Brain Res, Vol.137, pp.177-190, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(02)37016-X
- A. R. Allen, "Surgery of experimental lesion of spinal cord equivalent to crush injury of fracture dislocation," JAMA, 50: 941-952, 1991.
- Y. Taoka and K. Okajima, "spinal cord injury in the rat," Prog Neurobiol, Vol.56 No.3, pp.341-358, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0082(98)00049-5
- C. H. Tator and M. G. Fehlings, "Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms," J Neurosurg, Vol.75, No.1, pp.15-26, 1991. https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0015
- S. Casha, W. R. Yu, and M. G. Fehlings, "Oligodendroglial apoptosis occurs along degenerating axons and is associated with FAS and p75 expression following spinal cord injury in the rat," Neuroscience, Vol.103, No.1, pp.203-218, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00538-8
- A. M. Buchan, S. Z. Gertler, Z. G. Huang, H. Li, K. E. Chaundy, and D. Xue, "Failure to prevent selective CA1 neuronal death and reduce cortical infarction following cerebral ischemia with inhibition of nitric oxide synthase," Neuroscience, Vol.61, No.1, pp.1-11. 1994. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(94)90054-X
- N. Hayashi, "The brain hypothermia therapy for prevention of vegetation after severe brain injury," Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi, Vol.100, No.7, pp.443-448, 1999.
- R. C. Baena, R. Busto, W. D. Dietrich, M. Y. Globus, and M. D. Ginsberg, "Hyperthermia delayed by 24 hours aggravates neuronal damage in rat hippocampus following global ischemia," Neurology, Vol.48, No.3, pp.768-773, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.48.3.768
- C. S. Gadkary, P. Alderson, and D. F. Signorini, "Therapeutic hypothermia for head injury," Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Issue.1, CD001048, 2002.
- G. Z. Markarian, J. H. Lee, D. J. Stein, and S. C. Hong, "Mild hypothermia: therapeutic window after experimental cerebral ischemia," Neurosurgery, Vol.38, No.3, pp.542-550, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006123-199603000-00024
- H. Yanamoto, S. C. Hong, S. Soleau, N. F. Kassell, and K. S. Lee, "Mild postischemic hypothermia limits cerebral injury following transient focal ischemia in rat neocortex," Brain Res, Vol.29, No.718(1-2), pp.207-11, 1996.
- F. Colbourne, D. Corbett, Z. Zhao, J. Yang, and A. M. Buchan, "Prolonged but delayed postischemic hypothermia: a long-term outcome study in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model," J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, Vol.20, No.12, pp.1702-1708, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004647-200012000-00009
- S. A. Bernard, T. W. Gray, M. D. Buist, B. M. Jones, W. Silvester, G. Gutteridge, and K. Smith, "Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia," N Engl J Med, Vol.346 No.8, pp.557-563, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa003289
- N. L. van Meeteren, J. H. Brakkee, F. P. Hamers, P. J. Helders, and W. H. Gispen, "Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat," Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol.78, No.1, pp.70-77, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(97)90013-7
- B. Conner and M. Dragunow, "The role of neuronal growth factors in neurodegenerative disorders of the human brain," Brain research reivews, Vol.27, No.1, pp.1-39, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00004-6
- B. Legutko, X. Li, and P. Skolnick, "Regulation of BDNF expression in primary neuron culture by LY392098, a novel AMPA receptor potentiator," Neuropharmacology, Vol.40, No.8, pp.1019-1027, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3908(01)00006-5
- H. S. Oliff, N. C. Berchtold, P. Isackson, and C. W. Cotman, "Exercise-induced regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts in the rat hippocampus," Brain Res Mol Brain Res. Vol.61, No.(1-2), pp.147-153, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-328X(98)00222-8
- S. Grillner and P. Wallen, "Central pattern generators for locomotion with special reference to vertebrates," Annu Rev neurosci, Vol.8, pp.233-261, 1985. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ne.08.030185.001313
- P. A. Houglum, "Therapeutic Exercise for Athletic Injuries," Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2001.
- 전상륭, 권순찬, 노성우, 임승철, 이정교, 강신광, 강길현, 정천기, 김현집, "백서의 척수손상에서 저 체온법의 신경보호 효과", 대한신경외과학회, 제 36권, 제1호, pp.33-42, 2004.
- D. M. Basso, M. S. Beattie, and J. C. Bresnahan, "A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats," J Neurotrauma, Vol.12, No.1, pp.1-21, 1995. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.1995.12.1
- A. I. Nobunaga, B. K. Go, and R. B. Karunas, "Recent demographic and injury trends in people served by the Model Spinal Cord Injury Care Systems," Arch Phys Med Rehail, Vol.80, No.11, pp.1372-1382, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90247-2
- 변용찬, 서동우, 이선우, "2000년도 장애인 실태 조사 용역 보고서", 한국보건사회연구원, 2001.
- D. J. Gladstone, S. E. Black, and A. M. Hakim, "Toward wisdom from failure: lessons from neuroprotective stroke trials and new therapeutic directions," Stroke, Vol.33, No.8, pp.2133-2136, 2002.
- M. D. Ginsberg and R. Busto, "Combating hyperthermia in acute stroke: a significant clinical concern," Stroke, Vol.29, No,2. pp.529-534. 1998. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.29.2.529
- H. Koizumi and J. T. Povlishock, "Posttraumatic hypothermia in the treatment of axonal damage in an animal model of traumatic axonal injury," J Neurosurg, Vol.89, No.2, pp.303-309, 1998. https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1998.89.2.0303
- B. K. Kwon, W. Tetzlaff, J. N. Grauer, J. Beiner, and A. R. Vaccaro, "Pathophysiology and pharmacologic treatment of acute spinal cord injury," Spine J, Vol.4, No.4, pp.451-464, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2003.07.007
- 김봉옥, 김영경, 이구영, 최송표, 조강희, 손진훈, "척수손상 흰쥐에서 수영이 하지의 운동기능의 회복에 미치는 영향", 대한재활의학회지, 제25권, 제5호, pp.776-783, 2001.
- N. C. Berchtold, J. P. Kesslak, and C. W. Cotman, "Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum," J. Neurosci Res, Vol.68, No.5, pp.511-521, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.10256
- W. Cotman and N. C. Berchtold, "Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity," Trends in Neurosciences, Vol.25, No.6, pp.295-301, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02143-4
- 송주민, "외상성 소뇌 손상 흰쥐에서 환경강화가 운동기능과 BDNF 발현에 미치는 영향", 대구대학교 대학원, 박사학위논문, 2003.
- S. A. Neeper, F. Gómez-Pinilla, J. Choi, and C. W. Cotman, "Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain," Brain Res, Vol.726, No.(1-2), pp.49-56, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(96)00273-9