Effects of Rotarod Exercise and Electroacupuncture on Muscle Activity and Serum BDNF Level in the Ataxic Rats by the 3-Acetylpyridine

3-Acetylpyridine에 의한 운동실조 동물모델에서 로타로드 운동과 전침이 근활성도와 혈청 BDNF에 미치는 영향

  • 노민희 (부산가톨릭대학교 보건과학대학 물리치료학과) ;
  • 박수경 (부산가톨릭대학교 보건과학대학 물리치료학과)
  • Received : 2009.11.25
  • Accepted : 2010.03.30
  • Published : 2010.04.28


The 3-Acetylpyridine(3-AP) induces cerebellar injury which is chemoablation of the inferior olive nucleus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise(Ex) and electroacupuncture(EA) on muscle activity of hindlimb and serum brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in the ataxia rats by the 3-AP. 12-week-aged male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the 5 groups: Control, 3-AP, 3-AP+Ex, 3-AP+EA and 3-AP+Ex+EA groups. Maximal Height Vertical Jump(MHVJ) was significantly decreased in the 3-AP compared with control group, and it was increased in Ex, EA and Ex+EA groups than 3-AP group. The muscle activity of hindlimb was significantly increased in the 3-AP groups than control group, also it was most decreased in Ex+EA group. The concentration of BDNF of the serum was significantly decreased in the Ex, EA and Ex+EA groups than 3-AP group. The results of this study showed that dynamic exercise and electroacupuncture have a positive effect on functional recovery and in the ataxia rats by the 3-AP.


Supported by : 부산가톨릭대학교


  1. M. Ito, "Mechanisms of motor learning in the cerebellum," Brain Res, Vol.886, No.1-2, pp.237-245, 2000.
  2. E. R. Kandal and J. H. Schwartz, Principle of neural science, MacGrew-Hill Co., 2001.
  3. T. Ohyama, W. L. Nores, M. Murphy, and M. D. Mauk, "What the cerebellum computes," Trends Neurosci, Vol.26, No.4, pp.222-227, 2003.
  4. A. E. Mautes, K. Fukuda, and L. J. Noble, "Cellular response in the cerebellum after midline traumatic brain injury in the rat," Neurosci Lett, Vol.214, No.2-3, pp.95-98, 1996.
  5. S. J. Moss, B. Birkestrand, and S. C. Fowler, "The neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 partially protects against 3-acetylpyridine toxicity in the rat," Neurosci Lett, Vol.321, No.1-2, pp.53-56, 2002.
  6. G. Biggio, B. B. Brodie, E. Costa, and A. Guidotti, "Mechanisms by which diazepam, muscimol, and other drugs change the content of cGMP in cerebellar cortex," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Vol.74, No.8, pp.3592-3596, 1977.
  7. Y. Watanabe, K. Kinoshita, A. Koguchi, and M. Yamamura, "A new method for evaluation of motor deficits in 3-acetylpyridine-treated rats," J Neurosci Methods, Vol.77, No.1, pp.25-29, 1997.
  8. R. Llinas, K. Walton, D. E. Hillman, and C. Sotelo, "Inferior olive: its role in motor learning," Science, Vol.190, No.4220, pp.1230-1231, 1975.
  9. V. H. Sethy, H. Wu, J. A. Oostveen, and E. D. Hall, "Neuroprotective effects of the pyrrolopyrimidine U-104067F in 3-acetylpyridinetreated rats," Exp Neurol, Vol.140, No.1, pp.79-83, 1996.
  10. C. A. Giuliani, "Dorsal rhizotomy for children with cerebral palsy: support for concepts of motor control," Phys Ther, Vol.71, No.3, pp.248-259, 1991.
  11. 황준, 송명남, 조수영, "터치스크린을 이용한 운동실조 측정 도구 개발", 한국운동역학회지, 제 10권, 제1호, pp.149-163, 2000.
  12. S. D. Bagg and W. J. Forrest, "Electromyographic study of the scapular rotators during arm abduction in the scapular plane," Am J Phys Med, Vol.65, No.3, pp.111-124, 1986.
  13. J. Chae, G. Yang, B. K. Park, and I. Labatia, "Delay in initiation and termination of muscle contraction, motor impairment, and physical disability in upper limb hemiparesis," Muscle Nerve, Vol.25, No.4, pp.568-575, 2002.
  14. M. C. Hammond, G. H. Kraft, and S. S. Fitts, "Recruitment and termination of electromyographic activity in the hemiparetic forearm," Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol.69, No.2, pp.106-110, 1988.
  15. H. S. Phillips, J. M. Hains, G. R. Laramee, A. Rosenthal, and J. W. Winslow, "Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons," Science, Vol.250, No.4978, pp.290-294, 1990.
  16. C. Wetmore, P. Ernfors, H. Persson, and L. Olson, "Localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA to neurons in the brain by in situ hybridization," Exp Neurol, Vol.109, No.2, pp.141-152, 1990.
  17. D. Lindholm, G. Dechant, C. P. Heisenberg, and H. Thoenen, "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a survival factor for cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons and protects them against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity," Eur J Neurosci, Vol.5, No.11, pp.1455-1464, 1993.
  18. L. Novikov, L. Novikova, and J. O. Kellerth, "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes axonal regeneration and long-term survival of adult rat spinal motoneurons in vivo," Neuroscience, Vol.79, No.3, pp.765-774, 1997.
  19. J. Y. Zhang, X. G. Luo, C. J. Xian, Z. H. Liu, and X. F. Zhou, "Endogenous BDNF is required for myelination and regeneration of injured sciatic nerve in rodents," Eur J Neurosci, Vol.12, No.12, pp.4171-4180, 2000.
  20. H. J. Cho, S. Y. Kim, M. J. Park, D. S. Kim, J. K. Kim, and M. Y. Chu, "Expression of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dorsal root ganglion following peripheral inflammation," Brain Res, Vol.749, No.2, pp.358-362, 1997.
  21. D. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, and H. J. Cho, "Differential usage of multiple brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter in rat dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injuries and inflammation," Brain Res Mol Brain Res, Vol.92, No.1-2, pp.167-171, 2001.
  22. S. Pezet, M. Malcangio, and S. B. McMahon, "BDNF: a neuromodulator in nociceptive pathways?" Brain Res Brain Res Rev, Vol.40, No.1-3, pp.240-249, 2002.
  23. S. A. Neeper, F. Gomez-Pinilla, J. Choi, and C. Cotman, "Exercise and brain neurotrophins," Nature, Vol.373, No.6510, pp.109, 1995.
  24. D. P. Holschneider, J. Yang, Y. Guo, and J. M. Maarek, "Reorganization of functional brain maps after exercise training: Importance of cerebellar-thalamic-cortical pathway," Brain Res, Vol.12, No.1184, pp.96-107, 2007.
  25. Y. Dinga, J. Lia, Q. Laib, J. A. Rafolsc, X. Luana, J. Clarka, and F. G. Diaz, "Motor balance and coordination training enhances functional outcome in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion," Neuroscience, Vol.123, No.3, pp.667-674, 2004.
  26. A. Gasbarri, A. Pompili, C. Pacitti, and F. Cicirata, "Comparative effects of lesions to the pontocerebellar and olivocerebellar pathways on motor and spatial learning in the rat," Neuroscience, Vol.116, No.4, pp.1131-1140, 2003.
  27. M. H. Jang, M. C. Shin, G. S. Koo, C. Y. Lee, E. H. Kim, and C. J. Kim, "Acupuncture decreases nitric oxide synthase expression in periaqueductal gray area of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes," Neurosci Lett, Vol.337, No.3, pp.155-158, 2003.
  28. Z. N. Huang, R. Yang, G. Chen, and J. S. Cheng, "Effect of electroacupuncture and 7-NI on penicillin-induced epilepsy and their relation with intrahippocampal NO changes," Sheng Li Xue Bao, Vol.51, No.5, pp.508-514, 1999.
  29. E. Noguchi, H. Ohsawa, S. Kobayashi, M. Shimura, S. Uchida, and Y. Sato, "The effect of electroacupuncture stimulation on the muscle blood flow of the hindlimb in anesthetized rats," J Auton Nerv Syst, Vol.75, No.2-3, pp.78-86, 1999.
  30. 김수한, 최홍식, 김택훈, 신헌석, 김지성, 송치원, "침전극 저주파자극이 흰쥐의 Caspase-3, 9와 Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase 면역반응세포 변화에 미치는 영향", 한국전문물리치료학회지, 제11권, 제2호, pp.47-62, 2004.
  31. 김종인, 김용석, 김창환, "전침자극이 Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat의 대뇌겉질, 뇌줄기, 소뇌 부위의 Nitric Oxide Synthase 신경세포에 미치는 영향", 대한침구학회지, Vol.18, No.4, pp.116-124, 2001.
  32. G. E. Gibson and J. P. Blass, "Oxidative metabolism and acetylcholine synthesis during acetylpyridine treatment," Neurochem Res, Vol.10, No.4, pp.453-467, 1985.
  33. J. H. Kim, B. I. Min, D. Schmidt, H. J. Lee, and D. S. Park, "The difference between electroacupuncture only and electroacupuncture with manipulation on analgesia in rats," Neurosci Lett, Vol.279, No.3, pp.149-152, 2000.
  34. J. R. Cream, G. S. Kasman, and Holtz J, Introduction to surface electomyography: Instrumentation, Aspen, 1998.
  35. G. A. Hanssona, C. Nordandera, P. Asterlanda, K. Ohlssona, U. Stromberga, S. Skerfvinga, and D. Rempelc, "Sensitivity of trapezius electromyography to differences between work tasks-influence of gap definition and normalisation methods," J Electromyogr Kinesiol, Vol.10, No.2, pp.103-115, 2000.
  36. A. I. Caplan, "The effects of the nicotinamide sensitive teratogen 3-acetylpyridine on chick limb mesodermal cells in culture: biochemical parameters," J Exp Zool, Vol.180, No.3, pp.351-362, 1972.
  37. M. Weller, A. M. Marini, and S. M. Paul, "Niacinamide blocks 3-acetylpyridine toxicity of cerebellar granule cells in vitro," Brain Res, Vol.594, No.1, pp.160-164, 1992.
  38. J. C. Desclin and F. Colin, "The olivocerebellar system. II. Some ultrastructural correlates of inferior olive destruction in the rat," Brain Res, Vol.187, No.1, pp.29-46, 1980.
  39. 임재형, "쥐의 점프 운동학습이 소뇌 퍼킨제 세포 및 해마 피라미드 세포의 신경연접 효율성과 내측 비복근 근방추의 형태에 미치는 영향", 서울대학교 대학원, 박사학위논문, 1998.
  40. R. Balliet, K. B. Harbst, D. Kim, and R. V. Stewart, "Retraining of functional gait through the reduction of upper extremity weight-bearing in chronic cerebellar ataxia," Int Rehabil Med, Vol.8, No.4, pp.148-153, 1987.
  41. D. Xu, T. Liu, J. Ashe, and K. O. Bushara, "Role of the Olivo-Cerebellar System in Timing," J Neurosci, Vol.26, No.22, pp.5990-5995, 2006.
  42. D. Soppet, E. Escandon, J. Maragos, D. S. Middlemas, S. W. Reid, J. Blair, L. E. Burton, B. R. Stanton, D. R. Kaplan, T. Hunter, K. Nikolics, and L. F. Parade, "The neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 are ligands for the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor," Cell, Vol.65, No.5, pp.895-903, 1991.
  43. M. Barbacid, "Neurotrophic factors and their receptors," Curr Opin Cell Biol, Vol.7, No.2, pp.148-155, 1995.
  44. H. Kalish and T. M. Phillips, "Analysis of neurotrophins in human serum by immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) following trauma tic head injury," J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2009.
  45. C. S. Gama, A. C. Andreazza, M. Kunz, M. Berk, P. S. Belmonte-de-Abreu, and F. Kapczinski, "Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder," Neurosci Lett, Vol.420, No.1, pp.45-48, 2007.
  46. H. J. Reis, R. Nicolato, I. G. Barbosa, P. H. Teixeira do Prado, M. A. Romano-Silva, and A. L. Teixeira, "Increased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic institutionalized patients with schizophrenia," Neurosci Lett, Vol.439, No.2, pp.157-159, 2008.
  47. F. Angelucci, G. Spalletta, F. di Iulio, A. Ciaramella, F. Salani, L. Colantoni, A. E. Varsi, W. Gianni, G. Sancesario, C. Caltagirone, and P. Bossu, "Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Patients are Characterized by Increased BDNF Serum Levels," Curr Alzheimer Res, Vol.7, No.1, pp.15-20, 2010.
  48. S. Rojas Vega, T. Abel, R. Lindschulten, W. Hollmann, W. Bloch, and H. K. Struder, "Impact of exercise on neuroplasticity-related proteins in spinal cord injured humans," Neuroscience, Vol.153, No.4, pp.1064-1070, 2008.
  49. 이명화, 변용현, 윤범철, 김창주, "좌골신경손상 흰쥐에서 수영운동이 운동기능의 회복과 뇌유 인성 신경영양인자의 발현에 미치는 영향", 대한물리치료학회, 제 16권, 제 2호, pp.273-281, 2004.
  50. S. A. Neeper, F. Gomez-Pinilla, J. Choi, and C. W. Cotman, "Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain," Brain Res, Vol.726, No.1-2, pp.49-56, 1996.