Antioxidant Activity and Ginsenoside Pattern of Fermented White Ginseng

  • Received : 2010.01.20
  • Accepted : 2010.07.29
  • Published : 2010.09.30


Ethanol and water extracts of white and fermented ginseng were prepared and their ginsenoside composition and antioxidant effects were assessed. The main ginsenosides in white ginseng were $Rb_1$ > Re > $Rg_1$, and those in fermented ginseng were $Rb_2+Rb_3$ > Rd > $Rg_1$. Ginsenosides Rd and $Rg_3$ in fermented ginseng were enriched 11 and 58 times, respectively, over that in white ginseng through fermentation with five Bacillus spp. The greatest levels of 2-deoxyribose and superoxide anion dismutase-like activities were found in 50% ethanol extracts of fermented ginseng. Thus, these data suggest that white ginseng has the greatest free radical scavenging activity and that fermented ginseng has the highest antioxidant activity.


  1. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58:1685-1693.
  2. Tchilian EZ, Zhelezarov IE, Hadjiivanova CI. Effect of ginsenoside $Rg_1$ on insulin binding in mice liver and brain membranes. Phytother Res 1991;5:46-48.
  3. Kang SY, Kim SH, Schini VB, Kim ND. Dietary ginsenosides improve endothelium-dependent relaxation in the thoracic aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Gen Pharmacol 1995;26:483-487.
  4. Ju CN. The preventive effect on the saponin fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer against ethanol intoxication of rat liver. Proceedings of the 4th International Ginseng Symposium, 1984. p. 63-74.
  5. Kim ND, Han BH, Lee EB, Kang JY. Studies on ginseng on antistress effects. Korean J Pharmacogn 1979;10:61-67.
  6. Hwang WI, Oh SK. Effects of petroleum ether extract of ginseng root on some enzyme activity in human colon cancer cells. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1986;10:27-35.
  7. Liu ZQ, Luo XY, Sun YX, Chen YP, Wang ZC. Can ginsenosides protect human erythrocytes against free-radical-induced hemolysis? Biochim Biophys Acta 2002;1572:58-66.
  8. Shin JG, Park JW, Pyo JK, Kim MS, Chung MH. Protective effects of a ginseng component, maltol (2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyrone), against tissue damages induced by oxygen radicals. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1990;14:187-190.
  9. Han BH, Park MH, Han YN, Shin SC. Studies on the antioxidant components of Korean ginseng (IV) Antifatigue active components. Yakhakhoe Chi 1984;28:231-235.
  10. Lee DW, Shon HO, Lim HB, Lee YG. Antioxidant action of ginseng: an hypothesis. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1995;19:31-38.
  11. Chun C, Chang CC. The effect of red ginseng extracts on the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver of gamma rayirradiated mice. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1993;17:29-34.
  12. Choi KM, Lee EJ, Kim YH, Baik SH, Kim YK, Choi DS. Effects of red ginseng on the lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte and antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in NIDDM patients. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1997;21:153-159.
  13. Choi JH, Lee KM, Kim CB, Kim HJ. The effects of red-ginseng intake on free radicals produced during aerobic exercise in the elderly. The 7th Fall Congress of Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition, 1999. p. 21-40.
  14. Kim SN, Ha YW, Shin H, Son SH, Wu SJ, Kim YS. Simultaneous quantification of 14 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng) by HPLC-ELSD and its application to quality control. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007;45:164-170.
  15. Hu P, Luo GA, Wang Q, Zhao ZZ, Wang W, Jiang ZH. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31:1265-1273.
  16. Ando T, Tanaka O, Shibata S. Comparative studies on the ginsenosides and sapogenins of ginseng and related crude drugs. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1971;25:28-32.
  17. Korea Food & Drug Administration. Health functional food acts and subordinate statutes, notifications. Seoul: The Korea Food & Drug Administration, 2008.
  18. Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. Ginseng--Determination of ginsenosides (Rb1, Rg1) contents--Method using high performance liquid chromatography (KS H 2153). Gwacheon: The Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, 2007.
  19. Jeong HB, Park SH, Ko SK, Cho SH, Im BO. Actual consumption conditions and consumer perception of ginseng in the major countries. J Ginseng Res 2005;29:152-158.
  20. Sanada S, Kondo N, Shoji J, Tanaka O, Shibata S. Studies on the saponins of ginseng. I. Structure of ginsenoside—RO, Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1974;22:421-428.
  21. Shibata S, Tanaka O, Ando T, Sado M, Tsushima S, Ohsawa T. Chemical studies on oriental plant drugs. XIV. Protopanaxadiol, a genuine sapogenin of ginseng saponins. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1966;14:595-600.
  22. Kim SW, Kwon HY, Chi DW, Shim JH, Park JD, Lee YH, Pyo S, Rhee DK. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by ginsenoside Rg(3). Biochem Pharmacol 2003;65:75-82.
  23. Liu WK, Xu SX, Che CT. Anti-proliferative effect of ginseng saponins on human prostate cancer cell line. Life Sci 2000;67:1297-1306.
  24. Bae EA, Kim NY, Han MJ, Choo MK, Kim DH. Transformation of ginsenosides to compound K (IH-901) by lactic acid bacteria of human intestine. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2003;13:9-14.
  25. Chi H, Kim DH, Ji GE. Transformation of ginsenosides Rb2 and Rc from Panax ginseng by food microorganisms. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:2102-2105.
  26. Chi H, Ji GE. Transformation of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re from Panax ginseng by food microorganisms. Biotechnol Lett 2005;27:765-771.
  27. Luan HW, Liu X, Qi X, Hu Y, Hao D, Cui Y, Yang L. Purification and characterization of a novel stable ginsenoside Rb1-hydrolyzing ß-d-glucosidase from the Chinese white jade snail. Proc Biochem 2006;41:1974-1980.
  28. Kelly CT, O’Reilly F, Fogarty WM. Extracellular $\alpha$-glucosidase of an alkalophilic microorganism, Bacillus sp. ATCC 21591. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1983;20:55-59.
  29. Pajni S, Dhillon N, Vadehra DV, Sharma P. Carboxymethyl cellulase, $\beta$-glucosidase and xylanase production by Bacillus isolates from soil. Int Biodeterior 1989;25:1-5.
  30. Rowe GE, Margaritis A. Enzyme kinetic properties of $\alpha$-1,4-glucosidase in Bacillus thuringiensis. Biochem Eng J 2004;17:121-128.
  31. Hong HD, Sim EM, Kim K, Rho J, Rhee YK, Cho CW. Comparison of preparation methods for the quantification of ginsenosides in raw Korean ginseng. Food Sci Biotechnol 2009;18:565-569.
  32. Chung SK, Osawa T, Kawakishi S. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects of spices and scavengers from brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Biosci Biotech Biochem 1997;61:118-123.
  33. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-474.
  34. Park S, Kim DH, Paek NS, Kim SS. Preparation and quality characteristics of the fermentation product of ginseng by lactic acid bacteria (FGL). J Ginseng Res 2006;30:88-94.
  35. Park CS, Yoo MH, Noh KH, Oh DK. Biotransformation of ginsenosides by hydrolyzing the sugar moieties of ginsenosides using microbial glycosidases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;87:9-19.
  36. Kim HG, Kim KY, Cha CJ. Screening for ginseng-fermenting microorganisms capable of biotransforming ginsenosides. Korean J Microbiol 2007;43:142-146.
  37. Han CK, Hong HD, Kim YC, Kim SS, Sim GS. Effect of puffing on quality characteristics of red ginseng tail root. J Ginseng Res 2007;31:147-153.
  38. Kim MS, Lee MS, Kim SH, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Sung MJ, Kim HY, Kwon DY, Hwang JT. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenosides Rd via AMPK and PPAR gamma. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 2007;22:341-344.
  39. Mochizuki M, Yoo YC, Matsuzawa K, Sato K, Saiki I, Tono-oka S, Samukawa K, Azuma I. Inhibitory effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponins, ginsenoside-Rb2, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-$Rg_3$, of red ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1995;18:1197-1202.
  40. Lee JJ, Kwon HK, Lee DS, Lee SW, Lee KK, Kim KJ, Kim JL. Mycelial extract of Phellinus linteus induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells and elevation of Nitric Oxide in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Mycobiology 2006;34:143-147.
  41. Lee JJ, Kwon HK, Jung IH, Cho YB, Kim KJ, Kim JL. Anti-cancer activities of ginseng extract fermented with Phellinus linteus. Mycobiology 2009;37:21-27.
  42. Sun S, Wang CZ, Tong R, Li XL, Fishbein A, Wang Q, He TC, Du W, Yuan CS. Effects of steaming the root of Panax notoginseng on chemical composition and anticancer activities. Food Chem 2009;118:307-314.
  43. Yang SJ, Woo KS, Yoo JS, Kang TS, Noh YH, Lee J, Jeong HS. Change of Korean ginseng components with high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2006;38:521-525.
  44. Kang KS, Kim HY, Yamabe N, Yokozawa T. Stereospecificity in hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of four ginsenosides produced by heat processing. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006;16:5028-5031.
  45. Heo SI, Wang MH. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity effect of extracts from Taraxacum mongolicum H. Korean J Pharmacogn 2008;39:255-259.
  46. Moon YG, Lee KJ, Heo MS. Characteristics of citrus by-product ferment using Bacillus subtilis as starter extracts. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007;35:142-149.
  47. Balin AK. Testing the free radical theory of aging. In: Adelman RC, Roth GS, eds. Testing the theories of aging. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1982. p.137-182.
  48. Harman D. Aging: atheory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1956;11:298-300.
  49. Lee SL. Effect of biopolymer produced by mixed Bacillus strains on the antioxidant activity and inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and elastase. J Korean Soc Cosm 2009;15:562-570.
  50. Murakami A, Takahashi D, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H. Synergistic suppression of superoxide and nitric oxide generation from inflammatory cells by combined food factors. Mutat Res 2003;523:151-161.

Cited by

  1. BAY 11-7082 Is a Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor with Anti-Inflammatory Activity against Multiple Targets vol.2012, pp.1466-1861, 2012,
  2. Production by Suppression of the AP-1/p38 Pathway vol.2012, pp.1466-1861, 2012,
  3. Syk/Src Pathway-Targeted Inhibition of Skin Inflammatory Responses by Carnosic Acid vol.2012, pp.1466-1861, 2012,
  4. Diabetic Mice vol.2012, pp.1741-4288, 2012,
  5. oligoporin A: Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cyclic nucleotide elevation vol.23, pp.5, 2012,
  6. Effect of crude microbial enzyme pretreatment on the liberation of biological compounds and antioxidant activity of red ginseng extract vol.22, pp.3, 2013,
  7. Root Extracts vol.38, pp.3, 2013,
  8. Modulates the Inflammatory Responses Mediated by Monocytes and Macrophages vol.2014, pp.1466-1861, 2014,
  9. B-Dependent Manner vol.2014, pp.1466-1861, 2014,
  10. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review vol.2014, pp.1741-4288, 2014,
  11. Cytotoxicity of the white ginseng extract and red ginseng extract treated with partially purified β-glucosidase from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6954 vol.23, pp.1, 2014,
  12. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids vol.83, pp.4, 2014,
  13. B-Mediated Inflammatory Response vol.2015, pp.1466-1861, 2015,
  14. Effect of flower-buds of Panax ginseng fermented by various microorganisms on the activation of T cell immune responses vol.24, pp.3, 2015,
  15. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Korean ginseng in high-fat diet-fed ovariectomized rats vol.25, pp.4, 2016,
  16. Physicochemical Properties and Fibrinolytic Activity of Ginseng Powder Fermented with <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> Isolated from <i>Cheonggukjang</i> vol.08, pp.08, 2017,
  17. Recent Advances in Study of Ginsenoside Biosynthetic Pathway in Panax ginseng vol.773, pp.1662-8985, 2013,
  18. Progress in Understanding of the Key Enzyme Genes of Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Panax ginseng vol.773, pp.1662-8985, 2013,
  19. Effect of Yeast Fermentation of Green Coffee Beans on Antioxidant Activity and Consumer Acceptability vol.2018, pp.1745-4557, 2018,
  20. State of antioxidant systems and ginsenoside contents in the leaves of Panax ginseng in a natural habitat and an artificial plantation vol.40, pp.7, 2018,
  21. and their improved bioactivities vol.34, pp.7, 2018,