- Volume 15 Issue 3
The effects of low impact development (LID) techniques, such as green roofs and porous pavements, on the runoff and pollutant load from an apartment complex were simulated using the Site Evaluation Tool (SET). The study site was the Olympic Village, a preexisting apartment complex in Seoul, South Korea, which has a high percentage of impervious surfaces (approximately 72% of the total area). Using the SET, the effects of replacing parking lots, sidewalks and driveways (37.5% of the total area) having porous pavements and rooftops (14.5% of the total area) with green roofs were simulated. The simulation results indicated that LID techniques reduced the surface runoff, and peak flow and pollutant load, and increased the evapotranspiration and soil infiltration of precipitation. Per unit area, the green roofs were better than the porous pavements at reducing the surface runoff and pollutant loads, while the porous pavements were better than green roofs at enhancing the infiltration to soil. This study showed that LID methods can be useful for urban stormwater management and that the SET is a useful tool for evaluating the effects of LID on urban hydrology and pollutant loads from various land covers.
Low impact development;Site Evaluation Tool;Storm water management;Urban hydrology
- Lee WS. The trend and characteristics of urbanization of Korea by analysis of population census. KRIHS Policy Brief 2006;106:1-4.
- Oh KD, Jeon BH, Yang KK, An WS, Jho YH. Curve number for urbanized areas. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 2005;38:1009-1020.
- White MD, Greer KA. The effects of watershed urbanization on the stream hydrology and riparian vegetation of Los Penasquitos Creek, California. Landscape Urban Plann. 2006;74:125-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.11.015
- Paul MJ, Meyer JL. Streams in the urban landscape. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2001;32:333-365. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114040
- Prince George’s County, Department of Environmental Resources, Programs and Planning Division. Low-impact development hydrologic analysis. Upper Marlboro: Prince George’s County, Maryland; 1999.
- Schneider LE, McCuen RH. Assessing the hydrologic performance of best management practices. J. Hydrolog. Eng. 2006;11:278-281. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2006)11:3(278)
- Brander KE, Owen KE, Potter KW. Modeled impacts of development type on runoff volume and infiltration performance. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 2004;40:961-969. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2004.tb01059.x
- Passeport E, Hunt WF, Line DE, Smith RA, Brown RA. Field study of the ability of two grassed bioretention cells to reduce storm-water runoff pollution. J. Irrigat. Drain. Eng. 2009;135:505-510. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000006
- Li H, Sharkey LJ, Hunt WF, Davis AP. Mitigation of impervious surface hydrology using bioretention in North Carolina and Maryland. J. Hydrolog. Eng. 2009;14:407-415. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2009)14:4(407)
- Hunt WF, Jarrett AR, Smith JT, Sharkey LJ. Evaluating bioretention hydrology and nutrient removal at three field sites in North Carolina. J. Irrigat. Drain. Eng. 2006;132:600-608. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2006)132:6(600)
- Moran A. A North Carolina field study to evaluate greenroof runoff quality, runoff quality, and plant growth [master thesis]. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University; 2004.
- Hood MJ, Clausen JC, Warner GS. Comparison of stormwater lag times for low impact and traditional residential development. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 2007;43:1036-1046. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00085.x
- Jeon JH, Choi D, Kim TD. LIDMOD development for evaluating low impact development and its applicability to total maximum daily loads. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 2009;25:58-68.
- Tetra Tech Inc. Upper Neuse Site Evaluation Tool: model documentation. Research Triangle Park: Tetra Tech Inc.; 2005.
- Upper Neuse River Basin Association. Upper Neuse Site Evaluation Tool (SET) [Internet]; c2009 [cited 2009 Aug 4]. Available from: http://www.unrba.org/set/index.shtml.
- Tetra Tech Inc. Upper Neuse Site Evaluation Tool: user’s manual and guidance. Research Triangle Park: Tetra Tech Inc.; 2005.
- Daum. Daum map [Internet]; c2009 [cited 2009 Aug 4]. Available from: http://local.daum.net/map/index.jsp.
- Korea Meteorological Administration. Observed weather data [Internet]; c2009 [cited 2009 Aug 4]. Available from: http://www.kma.go.kr/index.html.
- Mohammed H, Yohannes F, Zeleke G. Validation of agricultural non-point source (AGNPS) pollution model in Kori watershed, South Wollo, Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Earth Observ. Geoinf. 2004;6:97-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2004.08.002
- Jeon JH, Choi D, Kim JJ, Kim TD. Regionalization of CN parameters for Nakdong Basin using SEC-UA algorithm. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 2009;25:245-255.
- Montalto F, Behr C, Alfredo K, Wolf M, Arye M, Walsh M. Rapid assessment of the cost-effectiveness of low impact development for CSO control. Landscape Urban Plann. 2007;82:117-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.004
- 1. Application of LID Methods for Sustainable Management of Small Urban Stream Using SWMM vol.36, pp.10, 2014, doi:10.4491/eer.2010.15.3.167
- 2. Evaluating Various Low-Impact Development Scenarios for Optimal Design Criteria Development vol.9, pp.4, 2017, doi:10.4491/eer.2010.15.3.167