DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of Atopy and Its Possible Association with Indoor Bioaerosol Concentrations and Other Factors at the Residence of Children

초등학생 가정을 대상으로 한 바이오에어로졸 노출과 아토피와의 연관성 평가

  • Received : 2011.08.21
  • Accepted : 2011.12.02
  • Published : 2011.12.31

Abstract

Objectives: Exposure to bioaerosols in the indoor environment could be associated with a variety adverse health effects, including allergic disease such atopy. The objectives of this study were to assess children's exposure to bioaerosol in home indoor environments and to evaluate the association between atopy and bioaerosol, environmental, and social factors in Ulsan, Korea. Methods: Samples of viable airborne bacteria and fungi were collected by impaction onto agar plates using a Quick Take TM 30 and were counted as colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/$m^3$). Bioaerosols were identified using standard microbial techniques by differential stains and/or microscopy. The environmental factors and possible causes of atopy based on ISAAC (International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood) were collected by questionnaire. Results: The bioaerosol concentrations in indoor environments showed log-normal distribution (p < 0.01). Geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of airborne bacteria and fungi in homes were 189.0 (2.5), 346.1(2.0) CFU/$m^3$, respectively. Indoor fungal levels were significantly higher than those of bacteria (p < 0.001). The concentration of airborne bacteria exceeded the limit recommended by the Korean Ministry of Environment, 800 CFU/$m^3$, in three out of 92 samples (3.3%) from 52 homes. The means of indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O) for airborne bacteria and fungi were 8.15 and 1.13, respectively. The source of airborne bacteria was not outdoors but indoors. GM of airborne bacteria and fungi were 217.6, 291.8 CFU/$m^3$ in the case's home and 162.0, 415.2 CFU/$m^3$ in the control's home respectively. The difference in fungal distributions between case and control were significant (p = 0.004) and the odds ratio was 0.996 (p = 0.027). Atopy was significantly associated with type of house (odds ratio = 1.723, p = 0.047) and income (odds ratio = 1.891, p = 0.041). Some of the potential allergic fungal genera isolated in homes were Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Alternatia spp. Conclusions: These results suggest that there this should be either 'was little' meaning 'basically no significant association was found' or 'was a small negative' mean that an association was found but it was minor. It's a very improtant distinction. Association between airborne fungal concentrations and atopy and certain socioeconomic factors may affect the prevalence of childhood atopy.

Keywords

Bioaerosol;Fungi;Bacteria;Atopic dermatitis

References

  1. Perkins JL. Modern industrial hygiene: biological aspects. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2003.
  2. Segen JC. Concise dictionary of modern medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
  3. Spergel JM, Paller AS. Atopic dermatitis and the atopic march. J Allergy Clin Immun. 2003; 112(6): S118-S127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2003.09.033
  4. Jee HM, Kim KW, Kim CS, Sohn MH, Shin DC, Kim KE. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Korean children using the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires. Journal of the Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease. 2009; 19(2): 165- 172.
  5. Grammatikos AP. The genetic and environmental basis of atopic diseases. Ann Med. 2008; 40(7): 482-495. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890802082096
  6. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 2011 Threshold limit values (TLVs) and biological exposure indices (BEIs). ACGIH, 2011.
  7. Pastuszka JS, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Lis DO, Wlazlo A, Ulfig K. Bacterial and fungal aerosol in indoor environment in Upper Silesia, Poland. Atmospheric Environ. 2000; 34(22): 3833-3842. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00527-0
  8. Douwes J, Thorne P, Pearce N, Heederik D. Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects. Ann Occup Hyg. 2003; 47(3): 187-200. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meg032
  9. Peccia J, Milton DK, Reponen T, Hill J. A role for environmental engineering and science in preventing bioaerosol-related disease. Environ Sci Technol. 2008; 42(13): 4631-4637. https://doi.org/10.1021/es087179e
  10. Flores CM, Mota LC, Green CF, Mena KD, Balcazar H, Gibbs SG. Evaluation of respiratory symptoms and their possible association with residential indoor bioaerosol concentrations and other environmental influences. J Environ Health. 2009; 72(4): 8-13.
  11. Burge HA. Fungi: toxic killers or unavoidable nuisances. Ann Allerg Asthma Im. 2001; 87(6): 52-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62342-3
  12. Bush RK, Portnoy JM. The role and abatement of fungal allergens in allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immun. 2001; 107(2): 430-442. https://doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.113669
  13. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH manual of analytical methods, Vol. 4th Ed. DHHS Publication, 1994.
  14. Korean Ministry of Environment. Guidelines of indoor air quality. Korean Ministry of Environment: Seoul, Korea, 2006.
  15. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). OSHA Technical Manual, 1999.
  16. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Guidelines for the assessment about aerosols in the indoor environment. ACGIH: Cincinnati, Ohio, 1989.
  17. Kalogerakis N, Paschali D, Lekaditis V, Pantidou A, Eleftheriadis K, Lazaridis M. Indoor air quality-bioaerosol measurements in domestic and office premises. J Aerosol Sci. 2005; 36(5-6): 751-761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2005.02.004
  18. Peccia J, Hernandez M. Incorporating polymerase chain reaction-based identification, population characterization, and quantification of microorganisms into aerosol science: a review. Atmospheric Environ. 2006; 40(21): 3941-3961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.02.029
  19. Public Works and Government Services Canada. Indoor Air Quality, Fugal Contamination Guideline: Interpreting the Analysis, 2005.
  20. CEC (Commission for European Communities). Environment and Quality of Life; Biological. in Indoor Environment. CEC: Luxembourg, 1993.
  21. Kim KY, Jang GY, Park JB, Kim CN, Lee KJ. Field study of characteristics of airborne bacteria distributed in the regulated public facilities. J Korean Soc Occup Environ Hyg. 2006; 16(1): 1-10.
  22. Hwang SH, Jo HW, Park DU, Yoon CS, Ryu KN, Ha KC. Levels and related factors of airborne fungi in microbial and chemistry laboratories in universities. J Korean Soc Occup Environ Hyg. 2010; 20(1): 41-46.
  23. Chao HJ, Schwartz J, Milton DK, Burge HA. Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings. Environ Health Persp. 2002; 110(8): 777. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.02110777
  24. Park JH, Spiegelman DL, Gold DR, Burge HA, Milton DK. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home. Environ Health Persp. 2001; 109(8): 859. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.01109859
  25. Wouters IM, Douwes J, Doekes G, Thorne PS, Brunekreef B, Heederik DJJ. Increased levels of markers of microbial exposure in homes with indoor storage of organic household waste. Appl Environ Microb. 2000; 66(2): 627. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.2.627-631.2000
  26. Chen Q, Hildemann LM. The effects of human activities on exposure to particulate matter and bioaerosols in residential homes. Environ Sci Technol. 2009; 43(13): 4641-4646. https://doi.org/10.1021/es802296j
  27. Nevalainen A, Flannigan B, Flannigan ME, Verhoeff AP, Adan OCG, Hoekstra ES. Health Implications of Fungi in Indoor Environments. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1994.
  28. de Aquino Neto FR, dw Goes Siqueira LF, Guidelines for indoor air quality in offices in Brazil. SenseAir. 2000; 4: 549-554.
  29. Ren P, Jankun TM, Leaderer BP. Comparisons of seasonal fungal prevalence in indoor and outdoor air and in house dusts of dwellings in one northeast American county1. J Expo Sci Env Epid. 1999; 9(6): 560-568. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500061
  30. Etzel RA, Montana E, Sorenson W, Kullman GJ, Allan TM, Dearborn DG, Olson D, Jarvis B, Miller J. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage in infants associated with exposure to Stachybotrys atra and other fungi. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 1998; 152: 1055- 1055.
  31. Curtis L, Lieberman A, Stark M, Rea W, Vetter M. Adverse health effects of indoor moulds. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine. 2000; 14(3): 261-274.
  32. Mui K, Wong L, Hui P. Risks of unsatisfactory airborne bacteria level in air-conditioned offices of subtropical climates. Build Environ. 2008; 43(4): 475-479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.01.012
  33. Yoon SP, Kim BS, Lee JH, Lee SC, Kim YK. The environment and lifestyles of atopic dermatitis patients. Korean J Dermatol. 1999; 37(8): 983-990.
  34. Williams H. Atopic dermatitis: new information from epidemiological studies. Brit J Hosp Med. 1994; 52(8): 409-412.
  35. Lee DJ, Kim EH, Jang YH, Lee ES. Epidemiological features of childhood atopic dermatitis in Suwon. Korean J Dermatol. 2010; 48(6): 482-492.
  36. Sheikh A, Strachan DP. The hygiene theory: fact or fiction. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery. 2004; 12(3): 232-236. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.moo.0000122311.13359.30
  37. Lee HJ. Fungi in indoor environment. Korean J Med Mycol. 1998; 3(2): 73-80.
  38. Lee JK, Lee HS, Ha JS, Park DJ, Paik DH, Ha KC. Prevalence rate and etiologic risk factors of atopic dermatitis in the preschool children in Changwon. J Environ Health Sci. 2009; 35(3): 169-177. https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2009.35.3.169

Cited by

  1. A Study on Bacterial Contamination of Cooking Environments of Food Service Operations at University vol.40, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2014.40.2.88

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 환경보건센터, 창원대학교