A Comparison of the Adjustment Methods for Assessing Urinary Concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic: Creatinine vs. Specific Gravity

요중 카드뮴과 비소의 보정방법 비교 : 요중 크레아티닌과 요비중

  • Received : 2011.11.16
  • Accepted : 2011.12.16
  • Published : 2011.12.31


Objectives: Biomarkers in urine are important in assessing exposures to environmental or occupational chemicals and for evaluateing renal function by exposure from these chemicals. Spot urine samples are needed to adjust the concentration of these biomarkers for variations in urine dilution. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of adjusting the urinary concentration of cadmium (uCd) and arsenic (uAs) by specific gravity (SG) and urine creatinine (uCr). Methods: We measured the concentrations of blood cadmium (bCd), uCd, uAs, uCr, SG and N-acetyl-${\beta}$-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, which is a sensitive marker of tubular damage by low dose Cd exposure, in spot urine samples collected from 536 individuals. The value of uCd, uAs and NAG were adjusted by SG and uCr. Results: The uCr levels were affected by gender (p < 0.01) and muscle mass (p < 0.01), while SG levels were affected by gender (p < 0.05). Unadjusted uCd and uAs were correlated with SG (uCd: r = 0.365, p < 0.01; uAs: r = 0.488, p < 0.01), uCr (uCd: r = 0.399, p < 0.01; uAs: r = 0.484, p < 0.01). uCd and uAs adjusted by SG were still correlated with SG (uCd: r = 0.360, p < 0.01, uAs: r = 0.483, p < 0.01). uCd and uAs adjusted by uCr and modified uCr ($M_{Cr}$) led to a significant negative correlation with uCr (uCd: r = -0.367, p < 0.01; uAs: r = -0.319, p < 0.01) and $M_{Cr}$ (uCd: r = -0.292, p < 0.01; uAs: r = -0.206, p < 0.01). However, uCd and uAs adjusted by conventional SG ($C_{SG}$) were disappeared from these urinary dilution effects (uCd: r = -0.081; uAs: r = 0.077). Conclusions: $C_{SG}$ adjustment appears to be more appropriate for variations in cadmium and arsenic in spot urine.


Adjustment disorders;Creatinine;Specific gravity;Urine


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