DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Comparison of the Adjustment Methods for Assessing Urinary Concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic: Creatinine vs. Specific Gravity

요중 카드뮴과 비소의 보정방법 비교 : 요중 크레아티닌과 요비중

  • Received : 2011.11.16
  • Accepted : 2011.12.16
  • Published : 2011.12.31

Abstract

Objectives: Biomarkers in urine are important in assessing exposures to environmental or occupational chemicals and for evaluateing renal function by exposure from these chemicals. Spot urine samples are needed to adjust the concentration of these biomarkers for variations in urine dilution. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of adjusting the urinary concentration of cadmium (uCd) and arsenic (uAs) by specific gravity (SG) and urine creatinine (uCr). Methods: We measured the concentrations of blood cadmium (bCd), uCd, uAs, uCr, SG and N-acetyl-${\beta}$-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, which is a sensitive marker of tubular damage by low dose Cd exposure, in spot urine samples collected from 536 individuals. The value of uCd, uAs and NAG were adjusted by SG and uCr. Results: The uCr levels were affected by gender (p < 0.01) and muscle mass (p < 0.01), while SG levels were affected by gender (p < 0.05). Unadjusted uCd and uAs were correlated with SG (uCd: r = 0.365, p < 0.01; uAs: r = 0.488, p < 0.01), uCr (uCd: r = 0.399, p < 0.01; uAs: r = 0.484, p < 0.01). uCd and uAs adjusted by SG were still correlated with SG (uCd: r = 0.360, p < 0.01, uAs: r = 0.483, p < 0.01). uCd and uAs adjusted by uCr and modified uCr ($M_{Cr}$) led to a significant negative correlation with uCr (uCd: r = -0.367, p < 0.01; uAs: r = -0.319, p < 0.01) and $M_{Cr}$ (uCd: r = -0.292, p < 0.01; uAs: r = -0.206, p < 0.01). However, uCd and uAs adjusted by conventional SG ($C_{SG}$) were disappeared from these urinary dilution effects (uCd: r = -0.081; uAs: r = 0.077). Conclusions: $C_{SG}$ adjustment appears to be more appropriate for variations in cadmium and arsenic in spot urine.

Keywords

Adjustment disorders;Creatinine;Specific gravity;Urine

References

  1. Barr DB, Wilder LC, Caudill SP, Gonzalez AJ, Needham LL, Pirkle JL. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(2): 192-200.
  2. Carrieri M, Trevisan A, Bartolucci GB. Adjustment to concentration-dilution of spot urine samples: correlation between specific gravity and creatinine. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001; 74(1): 63-67.
  3. Chadha V, Garg U, Alon US. Measurement of urinary concentration: a critical appraisal of methodologies. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001; 16(4): 374-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004670000551
  4. Suwazono Y, Akesson A, Alfven T, Jarup L, Vahter M. Creatinine versus specific gravity-adjusted urinary cadmium concentrations. Biomarkers. 2005; 10(2-3): 117-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/13547500500159001
  5. Davies KM, Heaney RP, Rafferty K. Decline in muscle mass with age in women: a longitudinal study using an indirect measure. Metabolism. 2002; 51(7): 935-939. https://doi.org/10.1053/meta.2002.33355
  6. Hall Moran V, Leathard HL, Coley J. Urinary hormone levels during the natural menstrual cycle: the effect of age. J Endocrinol. 2001; 170(1): 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1700157
  7. Shemesh O, Golbetz H, Kriss JP, Myers BD. Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients. Kidney Int. 1985; 28(5): 830- 838. https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.1985.205
  8. Moore RR Jr, Hirata-Dulas CA, Kasiske BL. Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria. Kidney Int. 1997; 52(1): 240-243. https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.1997.326
  9. Parikh CR, Gyamlani GG, Carvounis CP. Screening for microalbuminuria simplified by urine specific gravity. Am J Nephrol. 2002; 22(4): 315-319. https://doi.org/10.1159/000065220
  10. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull. 2003; 68: 167-182. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032
  11. Berglund M, Akesson A, Nermell B, Vahter M. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake. Environ Health Perspect. 1994; 102(12): 1058-1066. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.941021058
  12. Huang M, Choi SJ, Kim DW, Kim NY, Bae HS, Yu SD, et al. Evaluation of factors associated with cadmium exposure and kidney function in the general population. Environ Toxicol. 2011; doi:10.1002/tox.20750. [Epub ahead of print] https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20750
  13. Ryu DY, Lee SJ, Park DW, Choi BS, Klaassen CD, Park JD. Dietary iron regulates intestinal cadmium absorption through iron transporters in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2004; 152(1): 19-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2004.03.015
  14. Akesson A, Lundh T, Vahter M, Bjellerup P, Lidfeldt J, Nerbrand C, et al. Tubular and glomerular kidney effects in Swedish women with low environmental cadmium exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(11): 1627-1631. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8033
  15. Huang M, Choi SJ, Kim DW, Kim NY, Park CH, Yu SD, et al. Risk assessment of low-level cadmium and arsenic on the kidney. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009; 72(21-22): 1493-1498. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390903213095
  16. Swaddiwudhipong W, Limpatanachote P, Nishijo M, Honda R, Mahasakpan P, Krintratun S. Cadmiumexposed population in Mae Sot district, Tak province: 3. Associations between urinary cadmium and renal dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and urinary stones. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010; 93(2): 231- 238.
  17. Nordberg GF, Jin T, Hong F, Zhang A, Buchet JP, Bernard A. Biomarkers of cadmium and arsenic interactions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005; 206(2): 191- 197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2004.11.028
  18. Bhattacharya A, Bhattacharya S. Induction of oxidative stress by arsenic in Clarias batrachus: involvement of peroxisomes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007; 66(2): 178-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.002
  19. Kitchin KT, Del Razo LM, Brown JL, Anderson WL, Kenyon EM. An integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of arsenite action. 1. Heme oxygenase induction in rats. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1999; 19(6): 385-402. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6866(1999)19:6<385::AID-TCM3>3.0.CO;2-V
  20. Wang X. The expanding role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev. 2001; 15(22): 2922-2933.
  21. Husdan H, Rapoport A. Estimation of creatinine by the Jaffe reaction. A comparison of three methods. Clin Chem. 1968; 14(3): 222-238.
  22. Suzuki Y, Yoshinaga J, Mizumoto Y, Serizawa S, Shiraishi H. Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns. Int J Androl. 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01190.x. [Epub ahead of print] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01190.x
  23. Noto A, Ogawa Y, Mori S, Yoshioka M, Kitakaze T, Hori T, et al. Simple, rapid spectrophotometry of urinary N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-glucosaminidase, with use of a new chromogenic substrate. Clin Chem. 1983; 29: 1713-1716.
  24. Subramanian KS, Meranger JC. A rapid electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for cadmium and lead in human whole blood. Clin Chem. 1981; 27(11): 1866-1871.
  25. Park JH. Exposure Assesment of Biological Agents Environments of Biological Agents in Indoor Environments. J Environ Health Sci. 2009; 35(4): 239- 48.
  26. Goldberg TH, Finkelstein MS. Difficulties in estimating glomerular filtration rate in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 1987; 147(8): 1430-1433. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1987.00370080066014
  27. Baxmann AC, Ahmed MS, Marques NC, Menon VB, Pereira AB, Kirsztajn GM, et al. Influence of muscle mass and physical activity on serum and urinary creatinine and serum cystatin C. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 3(2): 348-354. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.02870707
  28. Hamouti N, Del Coso J, Avila A, Mora-Rodriguez R. Effects of athletes' muscle mass on urinary markers of hydration status. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010; 109(2): 213-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1333-x
  29. Lee JH, Ahn RM. Relevance of Gender, Age, and the Body Mass Index to Changes in Urinary Creatinine Concentration in Korean Adults. J Environ Health Sci. 2010; 36(3):215-221. https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2010.36.3.215
  30. Mage DT, Allen RH, Gondy G, Smith W, Barr DB, Needham LL. Estimating pesticide dose from urinary pesticide concentration data by creatinine correction in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III). J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2004; 14(6): 457-465. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500343
  31. Sirivarasai J, Kaojaren S, Wananukul W, Srisomerang P. Non-occupational determinants of cadmium and lead in blood and urine among a general population in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002; 33(1): 180-187.
  32. Ezaki T, Tsukahara T, Moriguchi J, Furuki K, Fukui Y, Ukai H, et al. No clear-cut evidence for cadmiuminduced renal tubular dysfunction among over 10,000 women in the Japanese general population: a nationwide large-scale survey. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2003; 76(3): 186-196.
  33. Nordberg GF, Jin T, Hong F, Zhang A, Buchet JP, Bernard A. Biomarkers of cadmium and arsenic interactions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005; 206(2): 191-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2004.11.028
  34. Cocker J, Morton J, Warren N, Wheeler JP, Garrod AN. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006; 50(5): 517-525. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mel009
  35. Link B, Gabrio T, Piechotowski I, Zöllner I, Schwenk M. Baden-Wuerttemberg Environmental Health Survey (BW-EHS) from 1996 to 2003: toxic metals in blood and urine of children. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007; 210(3-4): 357-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.031
  36. Schulz C, Conrad A, Becker K, Kolossa-Gehring M, Seiwert M, Seifert B. Twenty years of the German Environmental Survey (GerES): human biomonitoring- temporal and spatial (West Germany/ East Germany) differences in population exposure. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007; 210(3-4): 271-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.034
  37. Chia KS, Ong CN, Ong HY, Endo G. Renal tubular function of workers exposed to low levels of cadmium. Br J Ind Med. 1989; 46(3): 165-170.
  38. Kawada T, Tohyama C, Suzuki S. Significance of the excretion of urinary indicator proteins for a low level of occupational exposure to cadmium. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990; 62(1): 95-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00397855

Cited by

  1. Effects of Factors Associated with Urine Hippuric Acid Correction Values in Urinary Creatinine by HPLC and Jaffe Method and Specific Gravity HPLC Jaffe Method vol.25, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.15269/JKSOEH.2015.25.4.493