Antioxidative Activities of Korean Apple Polyphenols

  • Kim, Yoon-Sook (Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Choi, Hee-Don (Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Choi, In-Wook (Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • Received : 2011.11.09
  • Accepted : 2011.11.23
  • Published : 2011.12.31


The antioxidative activity and the polyphenolic composition were examined in four different cultivars of apple (Malus domestica), 'Fuji', 'Tsugaru', 'Hongro' and 'Kogetsu', and their parts (peel, core, pulp and juice). The total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins differed among the tested cultivars and parts. Peel parts had the highest total phenolics and anthocyanin content. Contributions of those phenolics to total antioxidative activity were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, and the linoleic acid oxidation assay. Concentration of phenolics contributes significantly to the total antioxidative activity of apples. Clearly, apple peels, especially from Hongros and Kogetsus, possess high levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Therefore, apple peels may potentially function as a value-added ingredient.


  1. Lee IK, Ko BN, Woo SG. 2008. Competitiveness and enhancing strategy for Korean apples. Korean J Intl Agri 20: 184-189.
  2. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M, Teppo L, Pukkala E, Aromaa A. 1997. Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. Am J Epidemiol 146: 223-230.
  3. Vinson JA, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P. 2001. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods; fruits. J Agric Food Chem 47: 5315-5321.
  4. Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D. 1993. Intake of potential anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in the Netherlands. Nutr Cancer 20: 21-29.
  5. Wolfe K, Wu X, Liu RH. 2003. Antioxidant activity of apple peels. J Agric Food Chem 51: 609-614.
  6. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, Maatela J. 1996. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland; a cohort study. Br Med J 312: 478-481.
  7. Eberhardt MV, Lee CY, Liu RH. 2000. Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature 405: 903-904.
  8. Le-Marchand L, Murphy SP, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN. 2000. Intake of flavonoids and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 154-160.
  9. Xing N, Chen Y, Mitchell SH, Young CYF. 2001. Quercetin inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 22: 409-414.
  10. Hyson D, Studebaker-Hallman D, Davis PA, Gershwin ME. 2000. Apple juice consumption in healthy men and women. J Med Food 3: 159-166.
  11. Awad MA, de Jager A, van westing LM. 2000. Flavonoids and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of 'Jonagold' and 'Elstar' apples during and after regular and ultra low oxygen storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 20: 15-24.
  12. Van der sluis AA, Dekker M, de Jager A, Jongen WMF. 2001. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions. J Agric Food Chem 49: 3606-3613.
  13. Tsao R, Yang R, Xie S, Sockovie E, Khanizadeh S. 2005. Which polyphenolic compounds contribute to the total antioxidant activities of apple? J Agric Food Chem 53: 4989-4995.
  14. Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem 50: 7449-7454.
  15. Podseddek A, Wilska-Jeska J, Anders B, Markowski J. 2000. Compositional characterisation of some apple varieties. Eur Food Res Technol 210: 268-272.
  16. Liu RH, Eberhardt MV, Lee CY. 2001. Antioxidant and antiproliferatives of selected New York apple cultivars. NY Fruit Q 9: 15-17.
  17. Burda S, Oleszek W, Lee CY. 1990. Phenolic compounds and their changes in apples during maturation and cold storage. J Agric Food Chem 38: 945-948.
  18. Ju Z, Yuan Y, Liu C, Zhan S, Wang M. 1996. Relationships among simple phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin in apple fruit peel at harvest and scald susceptibility. Postharvest Biol Technol 8: 83-93.
  19. Escarpa A, Gonzalez MC. 1998. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the determination of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties. J Chromatography 823: 331-337.
  20. Whang HJ. 1999. Changes of phenolic compounds in Korean apple (Fuji) during maturation. Korean J Food Nutr 12: 364-369.
  21. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Food Chem 50: 3010-3014.
  22. Jia Z, Tang M, Wu J. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64: 555-559.
  23. Boyles MJ, Wrolstad RE. 1993. Anthocyanin composition of red raspberry juice: influences of cultivar, processing and environmental factors. J Food Sci 58: 1135-1141.
  24. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenshaft und Technol 28: 25-30.
  25. Lee KW, Kim YJ, Kim DO, Lee HJ, Lee CY. 2003. Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 51: 6516-6520.
  26. Tanaka N, Nishikawa K, Ishimaru K. 2003. Antioxidant capacity of extracts and constituents in Cornus capitata adventitious roots. J Agric Food Chem 51: 5906-5910.
  27. Lu Y, Foo LY. 2000. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chem 68: 81-85.
  28. Ariga T, Koshiyama I, Fukushima D. 1998. Antioxidative properties of procyanidin B1 and B3 from azuki beans in aqueous system. Agric Biol Chem 52: 2717-2722.
  29. Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL. 1996. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. J Agric Food Chem 44: 701-705.
  30. Kondo S, Tsuda K, Muto N, Ueda JE. 2002. Antioxidative activity of apple skin or flesh extracts associated with fruit development on selected apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 96: 177-185.

Cited by

  1. Protective Effect of Radiation-induced New Blackberry Mutant γ-B201 on H2O2-induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells vol.46, pp.3, 2014,