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Deacidification Effect of Campbell Early Must via Carbonic Maceration : Effect of Enzyme Activity Associated with Malic-Acid Metabolism

Carbonic Maceration처리에 의한 Campbell Early 발효액의 감산 효과: 사과산 대사 관련 효소활성의 영향

  • Chang, Eun-Ha (Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA) ;
  • Jeong, Seok-Tae (Fermentation & Food Processing Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science RDA) ;
  • Jeong, Sung-Min (Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA) ;
  • Roh, Jeong-Ho (Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Kyo-Sun (Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Seo-Jun (Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA) ;
  • Choi, Jong-Uck (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2011.04.27
  • Accepted : 2011.09.02
  • Published : 2011.10.30

Abstract

To determine the deacidification factor during carbonic maceration (CM), different temperature conditions were studied. The pH was higher in CM-$35^{\circ}C$ and CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and was lower in CM-$45^{\circ}C$. The total acid was inversely related to the pH. The malic-acid level decreased much more in CM-$35^{\circ}C$ than in CM-$45^{\circ}C$ while the lactic-acid level increased much more in CM-$35^{\circ}C$. The activity of the NADP-malic enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate into pyruvate, $CO_2$, and NADPH, was higher in CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and CM-$35^{\circ}C$ while CM-$45^{\circ}C$ showed no NADP-malic enzyme activity. The malic-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was higher in CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and CM-$35^{\circ}C$ while CM-$45^{\circ}C$ showed no MDH activity. The oxalacetate decarboxylase activity was similar to the NADP-malic-enzyme and MDH activities. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was shown in all the CM treatments. The L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was not explored in the fermentation of pyruvate to lactate via LDH in the grapes during CM. In this study, it was confirmed that carbonic maceration reduced the malic acid during fermentation and was affected by the temperature. Moreover, it was assumed that the deacidification during the carbonic maceration of the grapes was probably correlated with the degradation enzyme activity of malic acid.

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