Effect of Polygonatum Odoratum on Lowering Lipid and Antioxidation

옥죽(玉竹)의 지질강하 및 항산화효과

  • Seo, Yong-Seok (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of oriental Medicine, Sang-Ji University) ;
  • Park, Won-Hyung (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of oriental Medicine, Sang-Ji University) ;
  • Cha, Yun-Yeop (Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of oriental Medicine, Sang-Ji University)
  • 서용석 (상지대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실) ;
  • 박원형 (상지대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실) ;
  • 차윤엽 (상지대학교 한의과대학 한방재활의학과교실)
  • Received : 2011.03.18
  • Accepted : 2011.04.07
  • Published : 2011.04.30

Abstract

Objectives : This study was designed to examine the effects of Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. on lowering lipid and anti-oxidation using hyperlipidemic rat. Methods : Male rats weighting $195.21{\pm}4.93g$ were divided into 4 groups and fed high fat diet for 8 weeks. Each of 7 rats was divided into a control and sample group. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Polygonatum odoratum(100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of anti-oxidative activity and tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$($TNF-{\alpha}$). Results : 1. Concentration of plasma free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride showed a significant decrement in all Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. However, concentration of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was not significantly different in all the treatment groups. 2. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. Concentration of liver triglyceride(TG) showed a significant decrement in all Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. 3. Concentration of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance showed a significant decrement in the 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. 4. The values of glutathione peroxidase activity showed a significant increment in all Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. The values of superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity showed a significant increment in the 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. 5. The values of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were not significantly different in all treatment groups. 6. Concentration of liver $TNF-{\alpha}$ showed a significant decrement in the 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. groups than that of control group. Conclusions : Based on the results in this study, the Polygonatum odoratum EtOH ext. showed a positive effect in lowering lipid and anti-oxidation.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 상지대학교

References

  1. Kim JQ, Song J, Park YB, Lee HK, Kim YS, Ryoo UH, Heo GB. National cholesterol treatment guidelines in korean population: setting-up the cutpoints for high blood cholesterol. Journal Korean Med Sci. 1977;12:12-22.
  2. Takayama S, Kahn CR, Kubo K, Foley JE. 1988. Alteration in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in insulin resistance: correlation with altered sensitivity to glucose transport and antilipolysis to insulin. Journal Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;66:992-9. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-66-5-992
  3. Arner P, Pollare T, Lithell H, Livingston JN. Defective insulin receptor kinase in human skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2(non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1987;30:437-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00292549
  4. Saito M. Interactions between lipid peroxide formation and nutritional status. Journal JPN Soc Nutr Food Sci. 1988;41:343-9. https://doi.org/10.4327/jsnfs.41.343
  5. 洪元植. 精校黃帝內經. 서울:東洋醫學硏究院出版部. 1991:61, 94, 219.
  6. Vergroeson AT. Physiological effects of dietary linoleic acid. Nutr Rev. 1997;35:1-9.
  7. 학은은 편저. 고지혈증의료전서:중의고적출판사. 2007:57-60.
  8. 허수영, 강효신. 비만의 동서의학적 고찰과 치료. 한방재활의학회지. 1997:7(1):272-86.
  9. 신민교. 임상본초학. 서울:영림사. 1997:197-8.
  10. Ahn DK. Illustrated book of Korean mediclinal herbs. Kyohak Publishing Co. 1998:660-1.
  11. Lim SJ, Kim KJ. Hypoglycemic effect of Polygonatum odoratum var. Pluriforum Ohwi extract in Streptozotocin-induced diabetc rats. Korean J Nutrition. 1995;28:727-36.
  12. Lim SJ, Kim YS. The effect of Buthanol fraction of Polygonatum odoratum with vitamine E on blood glucose levels and lipid peroxidations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J Nutrition. 1998;31:1385-93.
  13. Lim SJ, Kim PJ. Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Polygonatum odoratum consumption in non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus patients. Korean J Soc Food Sci. 1997;13:47-55.
  14. 김호철. 한약약리학. 서울:집문당. 2001:478-9.
  15. Buge JA, Austa SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. In: Methods in Enzymology. Fleicher S, Packer L. (eds). London:Academic Press. 1978;52:302-9.
  16. Levander OA, DeLoach DP, Morris VC, Moser PB. Platelet glutathione peroxidase activity as an index of selenium status in rats. J Nutr. 1983:55-63, 113.
  17. Flohe L, Becker R, Brigelius R, Lengfelder E, Otting F. Convenient as says for superoxide dismutase. CRC Handbook of free radicals and antioxidants in Biomedicine. 1992:287-93.
  18. Johnson LH, Hakan Borg LA. A spectrophotometric method for determination of catalase activity in small tissue samples. Analytical Biochemistry. 1988:174, 331-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(88)90554-4
  19. 2009 국민영양조사 보도자료. 보건복지가족부. 2010:6, 9.
  20. Barker J, Liu JP, Robertson EJ, Estratiadis A. Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth. Cell. 1993:75(1):73-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(05)80085-6
  21. Hill JO, Lin D, Yakybu F, Feters JC. Development of dietary obesity in rats: influence of amount and composition of dietary fat. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16(5):321-33.
  22. Lee KU, Lee HK, Koh CS, Min HK. Artificial induction of intravascular lipolysis by lipid-heparin infusion leads to insulin resistance in man. Diabetologia. 1988;31(5):285-90.
  23. Bray GA. Obesity increase risk for diabetes. Int Journal Obes Relat Metab Disord. 16(Suppl). 1992;4:S13-7.
  24. Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science. 1993;259:87-91. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7678183
  25. Ronald M Krauss, Mary W. Obesity: impact on cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 1998;98:1472-6. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.98.14.1472
  26. Lee E, Choi MY, Oh HS. Effects of powdered Siho(Bupleuri Radix) on serum and liver lipid composition and antioxidative capacity in rat fed high oxidized fat. Korean J Nutrition. 2000;33:502-6.
  27. Kang YH, Ha TY, Moon KD. Effects of pine needle extracts on serum and liver lipid contents in rats fed high fat diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. 1996;25:367-73.
  28. Ishikawa T, Suzukawa M. Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipopretein to oxidative modification. Am Journal Clin Nutr. 1997;66:261-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/66.2.261
  29. Ueda H, Tanoue K. Growth-depressing and cholesterol-lowering effects of quillaja and tea saponins in chicks as influenced by diet composition. Anim Sci J. 2000;71:393-9.
  30. 洪元植 譯. 校勘直譯 黃帝內經靈樞. 서울:傳統文化硏究會. 1995:284, 388.
  31. 정지행, 정성희, 이종수. 비만에 관한 문헌적 고찰. 동의물리요법과학회지. 1992;2(1):141-55.
  32. 변진우. 비만에 대한 문헌적 고찰. 원광대학교 대학원. 석사학위 논문. 1998.
  33. 김정연, 송용선. 비만에 대한 동서의학적 고찰. 동의물리요법과학회지. 1993;3(1):299-314.
  34. 김태경. 쉽게 찾는 야생화. 서울:현암사. 2010:239.
  35. 중약대사전(상). 서울:의성당. 1994:528-9.
  36. 金載益. 임상본초학강좌. 서울:대성의학사. 2001:217-8.
  37. Kissebah AH, Alfarsi S, Adams PW, Wynn V. Role of insulin resistance in adipose tissue and liver in the pathogenesis of endogenous hypertriglyceridaemia in man. Diabetologia. 1976;12(6):563-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01220632
  38. Nielsen S, Jensen MD. Obesity and cardiovascular disease is body structure a factor. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1997;8(4):200-4. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041433-199708000-00002
  39. 박혜순, 조홍준, 김영식, 김철준. 성인의 비만과 관련된 질환. 대한가정의학회지. 1992;13(4):344.
  40. 이삼열. 臨床病理檢査法. 서울:연세대학교 출판사. 2000:230-62.
  41. Frederic H Martini, William C Ober, Claire W Garrison, Garrison, Kathleen Welch, Ralph T Hutchings. Fundamentals of anatomy and phsiology. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall. 1995:93-98, 936-73.
  42. 이귀녕, 권오헌. 임상병리파일. 서울:의학문화사. 2000:148, 155-6, 164-5, 169-171, 182, 717.
  43. Bruce AF, James D, Carpo MD. Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest. 1982;47:412-26.
  44. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993;90:7915-22. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.17.7915
  45. Lioyd D. How to avoid oxygen. Science. 1999:249, 286.
  46. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973:179, 588.
  47. Kesavulu MM, Giri R, Kameswara Rao B, Apparao C. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in type 2 diabetics with microvascular complications. Diabetes Metab. 2000;26(5):387-92.
  48. Kono Y, Fridovich I. Superoxide radical inhibits catalase. J Biol Chem. 1982;257(10):5751-4.
  49. Reid MB, Li YP. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and muscle wasting a cellular perspective. Respir Res. 2001;2:269-72. https://doi.org/10.1186/rr67
  50. Sewter CP, Digby JE, Blows F, Prins J, O'Rahilly S. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from human adipose tissue in vitro. J Endocrinol. 1999;163:33-8. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1630033
  51. Prins JB, Niesler CU, Winterford CM, Bright NA, Siddle K. O'Rahilly S, Walker NI, Carreron DP. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces apoptosis of human adipose cells. Diabetes. 1997;46:1939-44. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.46.12.1939
  52. Kissebah AH, Alfarsi S, Adams PW, Wynn V. Role of insulin resistance in adipose tissue and liver in the pathogenesis of endogenous hypertriglyceridaemia in man. Diabetologia. 1976;12(6):563-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01220632