Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Garlic Powder and Fluid on Growth Performance, Immune Responses, Blood Components, and Disease Resistance against Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae in Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

사료 내 발효마늘분말과 발효마늘착즙액의 첨가가 넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)의 성장, 면역반응, 혈액성분 및 어병세균(Edwardsiella tarda 및 Streptococcus iniae)에 대한 질병저항성에 미치는 영향

  • 김강웅 (국립수산과학원 사료연구센터) ;
  • 김성삼 (제주대 해양생명과학과) ;
  • 정준범 (제주대 해양생명과학과) ;
  • 전유진 (제주대 해양생명과학과) ;
  • 김경덕 (국립수산과학원 사료연구센터) ;
  • 안철민 (국립수산과학원 사료연구센터) ;
  • 이경준 (제주대 해양생명과학과)
  • Received : 2011.10.26
  • Accepted : 2011.12.07
  • Published : 2011.12.30


Two consecutive studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fermented garlic powder (FGP) or fermented garlic fluid (FGF) on growth performance, immune responses, and disease resistance of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In experiment I, olive flounder (BW: 65 g) were fed four experimental diets formulated to contain 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% FGP (designated as FGP-0, FGP-0.5, FGP-1, and FGP-1.5, respectively). After the 10-weeks feeding trial, feed intake was significantly lower in fish fed the FGP-0.5 and FGP-1.0 diets, as compared to those fed the control diet. Fish fed the FGP-0 and FGP-0.5 diets showed significantly lower survival, as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with FGP resulted in higher non-specific immune responses than the FGP-0 group. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased as dietary FGP level increased. In experiment II, olive flounder (BW: 65 g) were fed four experimental diets for 10 weeks. The diets were prepared with a commercial expanded pellet to have 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% FGF (designated as FGF-0, FGF-0.25, FGF-0.5, and FGF-1, respectively) by adsorption. At the end of the second feeding trial, feed intake was significantly lower in fish fed the FGF-0 diet, as compared to other treatments. Fish fed the FGF-0.25 and FGF-0.5 diets exhibited significantly lower cholesterol levels, as compared to other treatments. Lysozyme activity significantly increased with increases in dietary FGF. Cumulative mortality in a challenge test with Streptococcus iniae was significantly lower in the fish groups fed FGF-supplemented diets than in fish fed the control diet. The results of this study indicated that dietary supplementation with FGP or FGF can enhance the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of olive flounder against S. iniae.


Grant : 고효율 배합사료 개발 및 실용화 연구, 친환경 유기양식 생산 매뉴얼 개발을 통한 양식넙치의 고품질화 및 가공기술 개발

Supported by : 국립수산과학원


  1. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, U.S.A., 1298.
  2. Brett JR and Higgs DA. 1970. Effects of temperature on rate of gastric digestion in fingerling sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. J Fish Res Bd Can 27, 1767-1779.
  3. Cavallito CJ, Bailey JH and Buck JS. 1945. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of Allium sativum III. Its procusor and essential oil of garlic. J Am Chem Soc 67, 1032-1040.
  4. Chi MS, Koh ET and Stewart TJ. 1982. Effect of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J Nutr 112, 241-248.
  5. Chun HJ and Paik JE. 1997. Effect of heat treatment of garlic added diet on the blood of spontaneously hypertension rat. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26, 103-108.
  6. Chung JY and Kim CS. 2008. Antioxidant activities of domestic garlic (Allium sativum L.) stems from different areas. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37, 972-978.
  7. Fauconneau BG, Choubert D, Blanc J, Breque and Luquet P. 1983. Influence of environmental temperature on flow rate of foodstuffs through the gastro-intestinal tract of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 34, 27-39.
  8. Folch J, Lee M and Sloane-Stanley GH. 1959. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497-509.
  9. Iwata N, Kikuchi K, Honda H, Kiyono M and Kurokura H. 1994. Effects of temperature on the growth of Japanese flounder. Fish Sci 60, 527-531.
  10. Kim KJ, Do JR and Kim HK. 2005. Antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticancer activities of garlic extracts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37, 228-232.
  11. Kim KW, Kim SS, Kim JW, Son MH, Kim KD, Bai SC and Lee KJ. 2011. Effects of feeding rate and pellet watersoaking on growth, blood components, and histology of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Kor J Fish Aquat Sci 44, 490-498.
  12. Kim SS, Galaz GB, Lee KJ and Lee, YD. 2006. Effects of dietary supplementation of Spirulina and astaxanthin for juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in low temperature season. J Aquacult 19, 57-63.
  13. Kim SS, Galaz GB, Pham MA, Jang JW, Oh DH, Yeo IK and Lee KJ. 2009. Effects of dietary supplementation of a Meju, fermented soybean meal, and Aspergillus oryzae for juvenile parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus ). Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 22, 849-856.
  14. Kim SS and Lee KJ. 2008. Effects of dietary kelp (Ecklonia cava ) on growth and innate immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac Res 39, 1687-1690.
  15. Kim SS, Song JW, Lim SJ, Jeong JB, Jeon YJ, Yeo IK and Lee KJ. 2010. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented garlic powder on immune responses, blood components, and disease resistance against principal fish disease of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in low temperature season. J Anim Sci & Technol 52, 337-346.
  16. Kumari J and Sahoo PK. 2005. Seasonal variation in the innate immune parameters of the Asian catfish Clarias batrachus. Aquaculture 252, 121-127.
  17. Mun HY, Lee HS, Park JH, Kim DH, Lee SY, Seong NS, Bang JK, Jung HG and Lee HY. 2004. Enhancement of immune activities of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium cultured with garlic enriched medium. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sco 12, 24-30.
  18. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Nutrient requirement of fish. National academy Press, Washington DC, U.S.A., 114.
  19. Park KY, Lee SJ, Lee KI and Rhee SH. 2005. The antitumor effect in Sarcoma-180 tumor cell of mice administered with Japanese apricot, garlic or ginger Doenjang. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 21, 599-606.
  20. Park SJ, Park DS, Kim SS, He X, Ahn JH, Yoon WB and Lee HY. 2010. The effect of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on the memory impairment of mice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39, 1691-1694.
  21. Park SJ, Seong DH, Park DS, Kim SS, Gou JY, Ahn JH, Yoon WB and Lee Hy. 2009. Chemical compositions of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38, 396-400.
  22. Pelletier D, Blier PU, Dutil JD and Guderley H. 1995. How should enzyme activities be used in fish growth studies?. J Exp Biol 198, 1493-1497
  23. Pham MA, Lee KJ, Lee BJ, Lim SJ, Kim SS, Lee YD, Heo MS and Lee KW. 2006. Effects of dietary Hizikia fusiformis on growth and immune responses in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus ). Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 19, 1769-1775.
  24. Qureshi A. 1983. Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic: Impact on serum lipids. J Nutr 113, 1746-1755.
  25. Sharma KK, Sharma AL, Dwivedi KK and Sharma PK. 1976. Effect of raw and boiled garlic on blood cholesterol in butter fat lipidemia. The Ind J Nutr Dietet 13, 7-11.
  26. Shin JH, Jung KM, Lee SJ, Yang SM, Rue GH and Sung NJ. 2009. Biological activities of dried garlic, red ginseng and their mixture. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38, 1633-1639.
  27. Yamata Y and Azuma K. 1977. Evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity of allicin. Antimicrob Anents Chemother 1, 743-749.
  28. Yeh SP, Chang CA, Chang CY, Liu CH and Cheng W. 2008. Dietary sodium alginate administration affects fingerling growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. and iridovirus, and juvenile non-specific immune responses of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immun 25, 19-27.

Cited by

  1. Effects of dietary probiotic, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I2, supplementation on the growth and immune response of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) vol.376-379, 2013,
  2. Comparison of Extruded and Moist Pellets for Whole-body Proximate Composition and Growth Performance of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus vol.47, pp.6, 2014,