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Optimization of the Acetic Acid Fermentation Condition of Apple Juice

사과식초 제조를 위한 사과주스의 초산발효 최적화

  • Received : 2011.06.24
  • Accepted : 2011.11.18
  • Published : 2011.12.30

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the acetic-acid fermentation properties of apple juice (initial alcohol content, apple juice concentration, acetic-acid content, and inoculum size) in flask scale. At the acetic-acid fermentation of apple juice with 3, 5, 7, and 9% initial alcohol content, the maximum acidity after 10-day fermentation was 5.88% when the initial alcohol content was 5%. The acetic-acid fermentation did not proceed normally when the initial alcohol content was 9%. When the initial Brix was $1^{\circ}$, the acidity gradually increased, and the acidity after 12-day acetic-acid fermentation was 4.48%. Above 4% acidity was attained faster when the apple juice concentration was 5 and 10 $^{\circ}Brix$ than when it was 1 and 14 $^{\circ}Brix$. When the initial acidity was 1% or above (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%), the acetic-acid fermentation proceeded normally. The acetic-acid fermentation also proceeded normally when the inoculum sizes were 10 and 15%, and the acidity after eight-day acetic-acid fermentation was 5.60 and 6.05%, respectively. Therefore, the following were considered the optimal acetic-acid fermentation conditions for apple cider vinegar: 5% initial alcohol content, 5 $^{\circ}Brix$ or above apple juice concentration, 1.0% or above initial acidity, and 10% or above inoculum size. Apple cider vinegar with above 5% acidity can be produced within 48 h under the following acetic-acid fermentation conditions: 7% initial alcohol content, about 1% initial acidity, and 10% inoculum volume at $30^{\circ}C$, 30 rpm, and 1.0 vvm, using 14 $^{\circ}Brix$ apple juice in a mini-jar fermentor as a pre-step for industrial-scale adaptation.

Keywords

apple juice;vinegar;acetic acid fermentation

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림수산식품부