Clinical Characteristics and Evaluation of Yin-deficiency Syndrome in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome

구강작열감증후군 환자의 임상적 특징 및 음허증 평가

  • Seon, Jong-Ki (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Sung (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Han, Ga-Jin (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Oh, Seung-Whan (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Son, Ji-Hee (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Kang, Kyung (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Ju-Yeon (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University) ;
  • Ryu, Bong-Ha (Dept. of Gastroenterology, School of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University)
  • 선종기 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 김진성 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 한가진 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 오승환 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 손지희 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 강경 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 김주연 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실) ;
  • 류봉하 (경희대학교 한의과대학 비계내과학교실)
  • Published : 2011.12.30


Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the clinical characteristics and usefulness of comprehensive diagnosis of Yin-deficiency and heart rate variability in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Methods : We surveyed 30 burning mouth syndrome patients visiting the Oral Diseases Clinic of Kyung Hee University Oriental Medicine Hospital from April to September of 2011. The subjects were evaluated on self-assessed severity of burning mouth syndrome and xerostomia using visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Yin-deficiency condition (based on the 10-item Yin-deficiency questionnaire). Salivary function was measured by the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR), and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were recorded by SA-2000E (Medicore Co., Ltd., Korea). Results : There were substantial significant positive correlations between burning sensation VAS scores in mouth and Yin-deficiency scores. There was significant negative correlation between xerostomia VAS score and USFR. Compared to the normal range of total power (TP) in HRV parameters, the burning mouth syndrome patients showed significant lower values of TP. Conclusions : The results of this study suggest that comprehensive diagnosis of Yin-deficiecny and HRV parameters are useful in diagnosing of burning mouth syndrome patients. Therefore, we assume that improvement of Yin-deficiency condition can be a potentially effective way to treat burning mouth syndrome.


  1. 이정길, 김병국. 구강 작열감 증후군의 원인 및 치료방법에 대한 문헌적 고찰. 학위논문(석사). 전남대학교 치의학전문대학원. 2009.
  2. Sardella A, Gualerzi A, Lodi G, Sforza C, Carrassi A, Donetti E. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome. Arch Oral Biol 2011;2634.
  3. 임현대, 강진규, 이유미. 구강 작열감 증후군의 병인론과 병태생리에 대한 고찰. 대한구강내과학회지 2010;35(1):41-7.
  4. 고명연, 장용석, 허준영, 안용우. 구강 작열감 증후군 환자의 미각에 대한 연구. 대한구강내과학회지 2006;31(4):275-81.
  5. Lauria G, Majorana A, Borgna M, Lombardi R, Penza P, Padovani A, et al. Trigeminal smallfiber sensory neuropahty causes burning mouth syndrome. Pain 2005;115(3):332-7.
  6. Siviero M, Teixeira MJ, de Siqueira JT, Siqueira SR. Somesthetic, gustatory, lofactory function and salivary flow in patients with neuropathic trigeminal pain. Oral dis 2010;16(5):482-7.
  7. Nasri-Heir C, Gomes J, Heir GM, Ananthan S, Benoliel R, Teich S, et al. The role of sensory input of the chorda tympani nerve and the number of fungiform papillae in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112(1):65-72.
  8. Mignogna MD, Pollio A, Fortuna G, Leuci S, Ruoppo E, Adamo D, et al. Unexplained somatic comorbidities in patients with Burning mouth syndrome: A controlled clinical study. J Orofac Pain 2011;25(2):131-40.
  9. Nagler RM, Hershkovich OH. Relationship between age, drugs, oral sensorial complaints and salivary profile. Arch Oral Biol 2005;50(1):7-16.
  10. 이정윤, 이영욱, 고홍섭. 구강건조증 증상 평가를 위한 설문지의 신뢰도에 관한 연구. 대한구강내과학회지 2005;30(4):383-9.
  11. 이명선, 김설희, 양정승, 오정숙, 김동기. 65세 이상 일부 노인의 Oral Health Impact Profile의 타당도 및 신뢰도. 대한구강보건학회지 2005;29(2):210-21.
  12. Lee S, Park J, Lee H, Kim K. Development and validation of Yin-Deficiency Questionnaire. Am J Chin Med 2007;35(1):11-20.
  13. Navazesh M, Christensen CM. A comparison of whole mouth resting and stimulated salivary measurement procedures. J Dent Res 1982;61(10):1158-62.
  14. Koreaki S. The dubious effect of milnacipran for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol 2011;34(4):170-3.
  15. Kim JS, Han GJ, BH Choi, JW Park, KM Park, IK Yeo, et al. Development of Differential Criteria on Tongue Coating Thickness in Tongue Diagnosis. Complement Ther Med; In press.
  16. Albuquerque DF, De Souza Tolentino E, Amado FM, Arakawa C, Chinellato LE. Evaluation of halitosis and sialometry in patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15(6):850-4.
  17. 허준. 동의보감. 서울: 남산당; 2001.
  18. 李梃. 醫學入門. 서울: 남산당; 1985.
  19. Silvestre-Rangil J, Silvestre FJ, Tamarit-Santafe C, Bautista D. Burning mouth syndrome: Correlation of treatment to clinical varibles of the disease. Med Oral Pathol Oral Bucal 2011;16(7):890-4.
  20. Takenoshita M, Sato T, Kato Y, Katagiri A, Yoshikawa T, Sato Y, et al. Psychiartic diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odongalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2010;6:699-705.
  21. Kato Y, Sato T, Katagiri A, Umezaki Y, Takenoshita M, Yoshikawa T, et al. Milnacipran dose-effect study in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol 2011;34(4):166-9.
  22. Chainani-Wu N, Madden E, Silverman S Jr. A case-control study of burning mouth syndrome and sleep dysfunction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112:203-8.
  23. Siviero M, Teixeira MJ, De Siqueira JTT, Dowgan SR, De Siqueira T. Central mechanisms in burning mouth syndrome involving the olfactory nerve: a preliminary study. Clinics 2011;66(3):509-12.
  24. Rouleau TS, Shychuk AJ, Kayastha J, Lockhart PB, Nussbaum ML, Brennan MT. A retrospective, cohort study of the prevalence and risk factors of oral burning in patients with dry mouth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111(6):720-5.
  25. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Burning mouth syndrome: prevalence and associated factors. J Oral Psychol Med 1999;28:350-4.
  26. Tourne LP, Friction JR. Burning mouth syndrome: Literature review and proposed clinical management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1992;74:158-67.
  27. Savage NW. Burning mouth syndrome: Patient management. Aust Dent J 1996;41:363-6.
  28. Netto FO, Diniz IM, Grossmann SM, De Abreu MH, do Carmo MA, Aguiar MC. Risk factors in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study based on patient records. Clin Oral Invest 2011;15(4):571-5.
  29. Zakrzewska JM, Forssell H, Glenny AM. Interventions for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;Issue 1:CD002779.
  30. Pinto A, Sollecito TP, DeRossi SS. Burning mouth syndrome. A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. N Y State Dent J 2003;69:18-24.
  31. Minguez-Serra MP, Salort-Llorca C, Silvestre-Donat FJ. Pharmacological treatment of burning mouth syndrome: A review and update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2007;12:E299-304.
  32. 김원, 우종민, 채정호. 정신과에서 심박변이도의 이용. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 2005;44(20):176-84.
  33. McCraty R, Atkinson M, Tiller W, Rein G, Watkins AD. The effects of emotions on shortterm power spectrum analysis of heart-rate variability. AM J Cardiol 1996;76:1089-93.
  34. Rimoldi O, Furlan R, Pagani MR, Piazza S, Guazzi M, Pagani M, et al. Analysis of neural mechanisms accompanying different intensities of dynamic exercise. Chest 1992;101:226-30.
  35. 심영우, 양동인, 김남현, 김덕원. 자세와 수면박탈이 심박변이도에 미치는 영향. 전자공학회논문지 2010;47(2):43-9.
  36. 손창호, 김민숙, 김현주, 김수영, 이지호, 전형준, 등. 우리나라 일부 주간 고정 근무 노동자의 수면 양상 및 주간 심박변이도. 대한산업의학회지 2005;17(3):208-15.
  37. 손지희, 김진성, 강경, 김주연, 선종기, 한가진, 등. 구취 환자에 대한 음허 변증과 심박변이도 검사의 유용성. 대한한의학회지 2011;32(4):464-74.
  38. Appel ML, Berger RD, Saul JP, Smith JM, Cohen FJ. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: Noise or music? J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;14(5):1139-48.
  39. Montano N, Gneddhi Ruscone T, Porta A, Lombardi F, Pagani M, et al. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability to assess the changes in sympathovagal balance during graded orthostatic tilt. Circulation 1994;90(4):1826-31.
  40. Hall M, Vasco R, Buysse D, Ombao H, Chen Q, cashmere JD, et al. Acute stress affects heart rate variability during sleep. Psychosom Med 2004;66:56-62.
  41. Piccirillo G, elvira S, Bucca C, Viola E, Cacciafesta M, Marigliano V. Abnormal passive head-up tilt test in subjects with symptoms of anxiety power spectral analysis study of HR and blood pressure. Int J Cardiol 1997;25(60):121-31.
  42. 이준경, 이남현, 하혜경, 이호영, 정다영, 최지윤. 등. EBM 구축을 위한 육미지황탕 문헌 분석 연구. 동의생리병리학회지 2009;23(1):15-26.
  43. 신재용. 방약합편해설. 서울: 집성당.
  44. 박선동. 방제학. 서울: 영림사.