The Ethanol Extract of Red Ginseng Enhances Anti-Tumor Effects Using Co60 Gamma Irradiation

홍삼의 에탄올 추출물의 감마선 조사를 통한 항암효과 증대

  • Hur, Jung-Mu (Chong Kun Dang Healthcare Crop. Research Center) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Ho (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute)
  • 허정무 (종근당건강(주) 연구소) ;
  • 김동호 (한국원자력연구원 정읍방사선과학연구소)
  • Received : 2011.01.12
  • Accepted : 2011.01.20
  • Published : 2011.03.31


Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea. In this study, we developed a new technique in which ethanol extract of $\underline{r}$ed $\underline{g}$inseng (HRG) was exposed to the $Co^{60}$ gamma radiation ranging from 1~5 kGy. The irradiated HRG (IHRG) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine any compositional changes of ginsenosides due to irradiation. No appreciable difference was observed in the HPLC pattern of ginsenosides of HRG. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxicity effect was significantly increased by IHRG compared to HRG. The $LD_{50}$ concentration was $30{\mu}g/mL$ for IHRG-1 (1 kGy), and $15{\mu}g/mL$ for IHRG-5 (5 kGy). The evidences of apoptosis, such as nuclei cleavage and Annexin V staining, were observed in the human prostate cancer PC-3 cells treated with the IHRG. Additionally, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was apparently elevated by IHRG. We also studied the inhibitory effect of IHRG on the growth rate of tumor xenografts in BALB/c male mice. The tumor growth rates were inhibited by 56.9 and 76.1% in mice treated with 10 mg/kg of IHRG-1 and IHRG-5, respectively, compared with control group (21.1%). These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in HRG can be more effectively enhancement of anti-tumor effects using irradiation.

홍삼은 우리나라에서 오랜 역사동안 여러 질병을 치료하는데 사용되었다. 본 연구에서는 홍삼 에탄올 추출물에 감마선을 1~5kGy 범위에서 조사를 하는 새로운 기법을 개발하고자 한다. 감마선 조사된 홍삼 추출물(IHRG)의 진세노사이드의 조성변화를 관찰하기 위해서 HPLC 분석을 이용하였다. 그 결과, 홍삼 에탄올 추출물에 감마선 1 kGy와 5 kGy를 조사한 처리군에서 진세노사이드의 조성에 변화는 관찰되지 않았다. MTT 분석법을 이용하여 사람의 전립선암세포주인 PC-3세포에서의 IHRG의 세포독성을 살펴 본 결과, 감마선을 처리하지 않은 홍삼추출액(HRG) 보다 더 높은 세포독성을 보였다. $LD_{50}$ 농도가 IHRG-1(1 kGy)에서는 $30{\mu}g/mL$, IHRG-5 (5 kGy)에서는 $15{\mu}g/mL$로 나타났다. 이러한 세포독성이 Annexin V/PI 분석 및 핵의 염색법인 DAPI 염색을 통하여 IHRG를 처리한 군들에서 전형적인 apoptosis를 관찰할 수 있었다. 또한, 산화적 스트레스(ROS)의 유발이 IHRG 처리군에서 나타났다. BALB/c 마우스에 암세포를 이식시킨 모델에서 IHRG에 의한 암세포 증식억제 효과를 살펴 본 결과, 암세포 증식 억제율이 HRG에서 21.1%인 반면에, IHRG-1에서 56.9%, IHRG-5에서 76.1%로 나타났다. 이들 결과들 통해, HRG에 어떤 생리활성 물질이나 성분들이 감마선 조사에 의해 항암효과를 증대시킨 것으로 사료된다.



  1. Attele AS, Wu JA, and Yuan CS(1999) Multiple pharmacological effects of ginseng. Biochem Pharmacol 58, 1685-1693.
  2. Buettner C, Yeh GY, Phillips RS, Mittleman MA, and Kaptchuk TJ (2006) Systematic review of the effects of ginseng on cardiovascular risk factors. Ann Pharmacother 40, 83-95.
  3. Choi JI, Kim YJ, Sung NY, Kim JH, Ahn DH, Chun BS, Cho KY, Byun MW, and Lee JW (2009) Investigation on the increase of antioxidant activity of cooking drip from Enteroctopus dofleini by irradiation. J Korean Soc Nutr 38, 121-124.
  4. Choi KH, Kwak YS, Rhee MH, Hwang MS, Kim SC, Park CK, Han GH, and Song KB (2008) Effects of pH and high temperature treatment on the changes of major ginsenosides composition in Korea red ginseng water extract. J Ginseng Res 32, 127-134.
  5. Han BH, Han YN, Ryu JH, Kim YC, Kang YH, Kwon JH, and Chin K (1995) Component profile analysis of irradiated Korean white ginseng powder. Korean J Ginseng Sci 19, 138-143.
  6. Helms S (2004) Cancer prevention and therapeutics: Panax ginseng. Altern Med Rev 9, 259-274.
  7. Kee CH (1999) In The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs (2nd ed). Herbs with Multiple Actions-Ginseng. CRC Press, New York, NY.
  8. Kiefer D and Pantuso T (2003) Panax ginseng. Am Fam Physician 68, 1539-1542.
  9. Kim WY, Kim JM, Han SB, Lee SK, Kim ND, Park MK, Kim CK, and Park JH (2000) Steaming of ginseng at high temperature enhances biological activity. J Nat Prod 63, 1702-1704.
  10. Kim YJ, Kim HJ, Choi JI, Chun BS, Ahn DH, Kwon JH, Byun MW, and Lee JW (2008) Effect of electron beam irradiation on the physiological activities of cooking drips from Entroctopus dofleini. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37, 1190-1195.
  11. Konoshima T, Takasaki M, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Duc NM, Kasai R, and Yamasaki K (1998) Anti-tumor-promoting activity of majoronoside-R2 from Vietnamese ginseng, Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. (I). Biol Pharm Bull 21(8), 834-838.
  12. Lee KD and Huemer RP (1971) Anti-tumoral activity of Panax ginseng extracts. Jpn J Pharmacol 21, 299-302.
  13. Morisaki N, Watanabe S, Tezuka M, Zenibayashi M, Shiina R, Koyama N, Kanzaki T, and Saito Y (1995) Mechanism of angiogenic effects of saponin from ginseng Radix rubra in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 115(7), 1188-1193.
  14. Park KL, Han SY, Kim PG, Shin JH, and Jnag SJ (2001) Evaluation of peri- and postnatal toxicity of gamma-irradiated Korean ginseng in rats. J Toxicol Pub Health 17, 17-25.
  15. Sato K, Mochizuki M, Saiki I, Yoo YC, Samukawa K, and Azuma I (1994) Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis by a saponin of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb2. Biol Pharm Bull 17(5), 635-639.
  16. Sengupta S, Toh SA, Sellers LA, Skepper JN, Koolwijk P, Leung HW, Yeung HW, Wong RN, Sasisekharan R, and Fan TP (2004) Modulating angiogenesis: the yin and the yang in ginseng. Circulation 110(10), 1219-1225.
  17. Simbula G, Columbano A, Ledda-Columbano GM, Sanna L, Deidda M, Diana A, and Pibiri M (2007) Increased ROS generation and p53 activation in alpha-lipoic acid-induced apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Apoptosis 12(1), 113-123.
  18. Takaku T, Kameda K, Matsuura Y, Sekiya K, and Okuda, H (1990) Studies on insulin-like substances in Korean red ginseng. Planta Med 56, 27-30.
  19. Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, and Yun HY (2001) Anti carcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds. J Korean Med Sci 16, S6-S18.

Cited by

  1. Three New Ginsenosides from the Heat-Processed Roots of Panax ginseng vol.49, pp.5, 2013,
  2. 청색광이 광중합기용 팁과 보안경에 따라 투과되는 투과율 차이 비교의 융합적 연구 vol.10, pp.12, 2011,