Carbon Emission Analysis Considering Demand Response Effect in TOU Program

TOU 프로그램의 DR 효과를 고려한 탄소 배출 분석

  • Received : 2010.09.08
  • Accepted : 2011.05.12
  • Published : 2011.06.01


Currently, the concern about the environment is the issue all over the world, and in particular, carbon emissions of the power plants will not be able to disregard from the respect of generation cost. This paper proposes DR (demand response) as a method of reducing carbon emissions and therefore, carbon emissions cost. There are a number of studies considering DR, and in this paper, the effect of DR is focused on the side of carbon emission reduction effect considering Time-Of-Use (TOU) program, which is one of the most important economic methods in DSM. Demand-price elasticity matrix is used in this paper to model and analyze DR effect. Carbon emissions is calculated by using the carbon emission coefficient provided by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and generator's input-output characteristic coefficients are also used to estimate carbon emission cost as well as the amount of carbon emissions. Case study is conducted on the RBTS IEEE with six buses. For the TOU program, it is assumed that parameters of time period partition consist of three time periods (peak, flat, off-peak time period).


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. M. H. Albadi and E. F. El-Saadany, "Demand Response in Electricity Markets : An Overview", 1-4244-1298- IEEE 2007
  2. Y. Tang, H. Song, F. Ho, "Investigation on TOU pricing principles", IEEE, TBD conference, Vol. 1, pp. 1-9, 2005
  3. D. S. Kirschen, G. Strbac, "Fundamentals of Power System Economics", ISBN: 0-470-84572-4, wiley, 2004
  4. Goel. L, Qiuwei Wu, Peng Wang, "Reliability Enhancement of A Deregulated Power System Considering Demand Response", 1-4244-0493-2-IEEE, PES conference, 2006
  5. Aalami. H, Yousefi. D. R, Moghadam. M. P, "Demand Response Model Considering EDRP and TOU Programs", 987-1-4244-1904-3- IEEE, T&D conference, 2008
  6. Erik Delarue, William D'haeseleer, "Greenhouse gasemission reduction by means of fuel switching in electricity generation: Addressing the potentials", ELSELVIER Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, pp 843-853, Aug. 2007
  7. Karki, S.; Mann, M.D.; Salehfar, H., "Substitution and Price Effects of Carbon Tax on CO2 Emissions Reduction from Distributed Energy Sources", Power Systems Conference: Advanced Metering, Protection, Control, Communication, and Distributed Resources, 2006. PS '06, pp. 236 - 243, 14-17 March 2006
  8. T.J. Hammons, "Impact of electric power generation on green house gas emissions in Europe: Russia, Greece, Italy and views of the EU power plant supply industry - A critical analysis", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 28, Issue 8, pp 548-564, Oct. 2006
  9. R. Billinton, L. Goel, et al, "A Reliability Test System for Educational Purposes-Basic Data", IEEE Trans. Power System, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 1238-1244, Aug. 1989