The Impacts of Biofuel Production on Water Quality and a Mitigation Methodology to Reduce the Impacts

바이오 연료 생산이 수질에 미치는 영향과 수질오염의 최소화 방안

  • Lee, Tae-Soo (Spatial Science Laboratory, Texas A&M University)
  • Received : 2011.01.28
  • Accepted : 2011.02.26
  • Published : 2011.02.28


Biofuel crops and their economical benefits have been recently researched as one of the alternative energy sources. Very few studies, however, have brought an issue about the impacts of the new cropping on environment, especially water quality. Because biofuel cropping requires more crop production with more fertilizers for cost-effectiveness, water quality near the new crops as well as downstream is expected to be degraded. In this study, the impacts of biofuel crop production on water quality was estimated by scenarios between pre-biofuel cropping and post-biofuel cropping using the previously calibrated SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a watershed in Texas, USA. Then, 30 meter filter strips were implemented on each biofuel ropland as a mitigation method. The economical and agricultural aspect and requirements of biofuel cropping was also previously investigated. The on-site impacts estimation showed that biofuel cropping increased about 250% to 1,150% of Total Nitrogen and about 100% to 1,100% of Total Phosphorous annually. The off-site estimation at the reservoir (entire watershed outlet) showed the annual increase of 40 to 50% for both Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous. The on-site effectiveness of filter strips was from 58.0% to 67.9% reduction for Total Nitrogen and 57.7% to 68.2% reduction for Total Phosphorous. The filter strips reduced 28.5% of Total Nitrogen and 29.4% of Total Phosphorous at the watershed outlet.

대체에너지로써의 바이오 연료 작물과 그 경제성에 대한 연구가 최근 활발히 진행되고 있다. 하지만 이러한 새로운 작물의 생산에 따른 수질변화에 대한 연구는 거의 없는 실정이다. 바이오 연료 작물은 그 경제적 효율성 때문에 많은 양의 비료를 필요로 하므로 농경지 부근과 하류지역의 수질 오염이 예측된다. 이 논문에서는 바이오 연료 작물이 수질에 미치는 영향을 검정된 SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) 모델을 이용하여 작물의 전과 후의 시나리오로 예측하였다. 그리고 수질 악화를 줄이는 방안으로 30미터 넓이의 필터 스트립을 모델에서 시뮬레이션 하였다. 바이오 연료 작물 생산에 필요한 농경 일정은 이 전의 연구를 참고하였다. 모델 예측 결과, 농경지 주변에서는 연간 250-1,150%의 총질소가, 그리고 100-1, 100%의 총인이 각각 증가하였다. 유역의 유출구 (호수)에서는 연간 40-50%의 총질소와 총인이 증가하였다. 필터 스트립을 설치한 후 농경지 주변에서는 연간 58.0-67.9%의 총질소와 57.7-68.2%의 총인이 각각 감소하였으며 유출구에서는 연간 28.5%의 총질소와 29.4%의 총인이 각각 감소하였다.



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