Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 by Citrate Process

구연산염법을 이용한 LiFePO4 합성 및 전기화학특성에 관한 연구

  • Kim, Soo-Min (Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Techology) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Hun (Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Techology) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Ho (Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Techology) ;
  • Kim, Ung-Soo (Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Techology) ;
  • Hwang, Hae-Jin (Department of Ceramic Engineering, In-ha Univ.) ;
  • Cho, Woo-Seok (Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Techology)
  • 김수민 (한국세라믹기술원 이천분원) ;
  • 김상훈 (한국세라믹기술원 이천분원) ;
  • 김진호 (한국세라믹기술원 이천분원) ;
  • 김응수 (한국세라믹기술원 이천분원) ;
  • 황해진 (인하대학교 세라믹공학과) ;
  • 조우석 (한국세라믹기술원 이천분원)
  • Received : 2011.09.30
  • Accepted : 2011.10.21
  • Published : 2011.10.30


$LiFePO_4$ is a promising cathode material for secondary lithium batteries due to its high energy density, low cost and safety. $LiFePO_4$ was synthesized by the citrate process under reductive, neutral, and oxidative, atmospheres and the crystal structure was analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The samples synthesized under $N_2$ and $H_2$ atmosphere showed a single phase of a olivine structure, where the samples synthesized under $O_2$ atmosphere exhibited second phase of $Fe2O_3$. All the samples synthesized at 400, 600 and $800^{\circ}C$ under $N_2$ atmosphere presented a single phase of olivine. Residual organic material was observed for the sample synthesized at $400^{\circ}C$. There was nearly no intensity difference between the samples synthesized at $600^{\circ}C$ and $800^{\circ}C$. The electrochemical characteristic of the $LiFePO_4$ synthesized at $600^{\circ}C$ in the $N_2$ atmosphere was analyzed. The result exhibited an high discharge capacity of 160 mAh/g at the first cycle, and 155-160 mAh/g after 45 cycles.


  1. 김훈욱, 윤순도, 이재천, 박혜령, 박찬기, 송명엽 "기계적 혼합과 고상법에 의해 합성한 LiNi1-yInyO2의 전기화학적 특성" 한국수소 및 신에너지학회 논문집 Vol. 17, No. 1, 2006, pp. 117-124.
  2. S.Yang, P.Y.Zavalij and M.S.Whittiugham "Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate cathodes" Electrochemistry Commu -nication Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 505-508.
  3. M.A.E.Sanchez, G.E.S.Brito, M.C.A.Fantini, G.F.Goya and J.R.Matos "Synthesis and characterization of $LiFePO_{4}$ prepared by sol-gel technique" Solid State Ionics Vol. 177, 2006, pp. 497-500.
  4. 최광휘, 심광보 "착체중합법을 이용한 ITO 나노분말의 저온합성 및 소결거동" 한양대학교 대학원 세라믹공학과 공학석사학위논문, 2003.
  5. 류필무, 오승모 "리튬 이차전지의 양극재료인 $LiFePO_{4}$의 고온 특성에 관한 연구" 서울대학교 대학원 화학생물공학부 공학석사학위논문, 2006.
  6. W.S.Cho and Etsuo Hamada "Synthesis of ultrafine $BatiO_{3}$ particles from polymeric precursor: their structure and surface property" Journal of Alloys and Compounds Vol. 266, 1998, pp. 118-122.
  7. H.C.Kang, D.K.Jun, B.Jin, E.M.Jin, K.H.Park, H.B.Gu and K.W.Kim "Optimized solid-state synthesis of LiFePO4 cathode materials using ball-milling" Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 179, 2008, pp. 340-346.
  8. Y.S.Jeon, E.M.Jin, B.Jin, D.K.Jun, Z.J.Han and H.B.Gu "Structural and electrochemical characterization of LiFePO4 synthesized by hydrothermal method" Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2007, pp. 41-45.