- Volume 11 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Comparing of Blind Watermarking Method using DWT and CAT
DWT와 셀룰라 오토마타 변환을 이용한 블라인드 워터마킹 비교
- Received : 2011.01.12
- Accepted : 2011.04.12
- Published : 2011.04.28
In this paper, we propose a novel blind digital watermarking method based on a cellular automata transform (CAT). CAT is based on dynamic systems known as cellular automata(CA) and uses transform bases which are differently defined by a rule number, the number of neighbors, the number of cells, and an initial state, etc. The proposed CAT based method is compared with a blind watermarking method based on DWT which is commonly used for a domain transform in signal processing. We analyse properties on changes of DWT coefficients and CAT coefficients under various attacks and determine optimal parameters for a watermarking method robust to attacks. The simulations show that the watermarked images with high PSNR and MSSIM look visually identical to originals and are robust against most of typical image processing attacks. Moreover, the proposed CAT based watermarking method is superior to the DWT based one in robustness to most of typical image processing attacks including JPEG compression, median and average filtering, scaling, cropping, and histogram equalization.
Supported by : 한국연구재단
- R. J. Chen, C. F Tai, and J. L. Lai, "Novel CAT Wavelets-based Image Coding System," in Proc IEEE ISCE, pp.1-6, 2007(6). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISCE.2007.4382129
- F. Liu, K. Han, and C. Z. Wang, "A novel blind watermark algorithm based On SVD and DCT," in Proc. IEEE ICICISYS, Vol.4, pp.283-286, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICICISYS.2009.5357687
- Y. T. Zhao, Y. F. Ma, and Z. Q. Li. "A robust chaos-based DCT-domain watermarking algorithm," in Proc. IEEE CSSE, Vol.3, pp.935-938, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/CSSE.2008.332
- W. H. Lin, S. J. Horng, T. W. Kao, and P. Z. Fan, "An Efficient Watermarking Method Based on Significant Difference of Wavelet Coefficient Quantization," IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, Vol.10, No.5, pp.746-757, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2008.922795
- G. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Wen, "An adaptive block-based blind watermarking algorithm," In Proc. IEEE ICSP, pp.2294-2297, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICOSP.2004.1442238
- S. P. Maity and M. K. Kundu, "DHT domain digital watermarking with low loss in image informations," AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol.64, pp.243-257, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2008.10.004
- X. W. Zhu and L. Xiao, "Research of Blind Watermark Detection Algorithm Based on Wavelet and Contourlet Transform Domain," In Proc. EBISS'09, pp.1-5, 2009.
- O. Lafe, "Data compression and encryption using cellular automata transforms," Engng. Applic. Artif. Intell., Vol.10, No.6, pp.581-591, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-1976(97)00040-7
- R. Shiba, S. Kang, and Y. Aoki, "An image watermarking technique using cellular automata transform," TENON 2004 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Vol.1, pp.303-306, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TENCON.2004.1414417
- V. H. Mankar, T. S. Das, and S. K. Sarkar. "Cellular Automata Based Robust Watermarking Architecture towards the VLSI Realization," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.31, pp.20-29, 2007.
- 박영일, 김석태, "다 해상도 특성을 갖는 2D 셀룰러 오토마타 변환을 이용한 디지털 워터마킹", 한국통신학회논문지, 제34권, 제1호, 2009.
- S. Wolfram, "Statistical mechanics of cellular automata," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.55, pp.601-644, 1983. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.55.601