Effect of Feeding Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Kernel Cake in Combination on Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, and Microbial Populations in Goats Fed on Briachiaria humidicola Hay-based Diets

Chanjula, P.;Siriwathananukul, Y.;Lawpetchara, A.

  • Received : 2010.05.04
  • Accepted : 2010.08.09
  • Published : 2011.01.01


Six male crossbred (Thai Native${\times}$Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial weight of $22{\pm}2\;kg$, were randomly assigned according to a $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $6{\times}6$ Latin square design with a 21-d period to evaluate the effect of feeding rubber seed kernel (RSK) and palm kernel cake (PKC) in combination on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization. The dietary treatments were as follows: i) concentrate containing 0% RSK and 20% PKC ($T_1$), ii) 0% RSK and 30% PKC ($T_2$), iii) 20% RSK and 20% PKC ($T_3$), iv) 20% RSK and 30% PKC ($T_4$), v) 30% RSK and 20% PKC ($T_5$), and vi) 30% RSK and 30% PKC ($T_6$). During the experiment, signal hay was given on an ad libitum basis as the roughage. It was found that RSK levels and PKC levels had no interaction effects on feed intake, apparent digestibility, $NH_3$-N, blood metabolites, VFA concentrations, and nitrogen utilization, but there were interactions between RSK levels and PKC levels with respect to total DMI (kg/d) and total VFA concentrations, and goats receiving 30% RSK had lower values (p<0.05) than those receiving 0 and 20% RSK, respectively. Feeding different PKC levels did not affect (p>0.05) feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation patterns, blood metabolites, and nitrogen utilization. However, increasing RSK levels (>20%) resulted in a slightly lower daily DMI (% BW and g/kg $BW^{0.75}$), apparent digestibility (NDF and ADF), total N intake, and N excretion than in goats fed on 0 and 20% RSK. BUN, blood glucose, and propionate were variable among treatment and were highest in 0% RSK with the 20% PKC fed group having values which were higher than those in other groups. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments with respect to N retention, PD output, and microbial N supply. Based on this study, RSK levels up to 20% and PKC at 20-30% in concentrate could be efficiently utilized for goats fed on signal hay.


Rubber Seed Kernel;Palm Kernel Cake;Feed Intake;Rumen Fermentation;Goat


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