Fatty Acid Composition of Fry Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fed Graded Levels of Sand Smelt (Atherina boyeri) Meal



Gumus, Erkan

  • 투고 : 2010.06.21
  • 심사 : 2010.09.06
  • 발행 : 2011.02.01


The effect of replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets with sand smelt meal (SSM) on fatty acid composition of carp fry, Cyprinus carpio, was examined. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (38% crude protein, $15.75\;kJ\;g^{-1}$) diets replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% FM protein by SSM protein were formulated. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in aquaria, and each aquarium was stocked with 20 fish (initial average weight of $0.300{\pm}0.65\;g\;fish^{-1}$). Fish were fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 13 weeks. Results indicated that final weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio of fish fed with different SSM replacement diets did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from fish fed the control diet, except for 100% SSM level. No significant differences were noted among experimental treatments on dry matter, protein, lipid and ash contents of the fish body composition (p>0.05). Fatty acid analysis showed that saturated fatty acids in fish muscle significantly decreased, but monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not change with increasing dietary SSM. However, some changes also could be observed for some particular fatty acids in experimental fish. For example, the amounts of 15:0, 17:0, 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6 and 22:5n-3 significantly increased, but 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3 and 20:1 n-9 significantly decreased with increasing dietary SSM. Total n-6 PUFA increased with increasing dietary SSM, but total n-3 PUFA were not changed in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 was not affected significantly in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets containing different proportions of SSM, including the control diet.


Cyprinus carpio;Fishmeal Substitute;Sand Smelt Meal;Fatty Acids


  1. Abdelghany, A. E. 2003. Partial and complete replacement of fish meal with gambusia meal in diets for red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus${\times}$O. mossambicus. Aquacult. Nutr. 9:145-154. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2095.2003.00234.x
  2. Ackman, R. G. 1967. Characteristics of the fatty acid composition and biochemistry of some fresh water fish oils and lipids in comparison with marine oils and lipids. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 22:907-922. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406X(67)90781-5
  3. Ahlgren, G., P. Blomqvist, M. Boberg and I. B. Gustafsson. 1994. Fatty acid content of the dorsal muscle-an indicator of fat quality in freshwater fish. J. Fish Biol. 45:131-157.
  4. Ahmad, M. H. 2008. Evaluation of gambusia, Gambusia affinis, fish meal in practical diets for fry Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. World Aquac. Soc. 39:243-250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2008.00154.x
  5. AOAC. 1995. Offical methods of analysis 16th ed. Association of Offical Analitical Chemists, Inc., Arlington,VA, USA.
  6. Arzel, J., L. E. J. Martinez, R. Metailer, G. Stephan, M. Viau, G. Gandemer and J. Guillaume. 1994. Effect of dietary lipid on growth performance and body composition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in seawater. Aquaculture 123:361-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)90071-X
  7. Bahurmiz, O. M. and W. K. Ng. 2007. Effects of dietary palm oil source on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and nutrient digestibility of red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis sp., raised from stocking to marketable size. Aquaculture 262:382-392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.023
  8. Du, Z. Y., P. Clouet, L. M. Huang, P. Degrace, W. H. Zheng and J. G. He. 2008. Utilization of different dietary lipid sources at high level in herbivorous grass carp (Ctenophoryngodon idella): mechanism related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Aquacult. Nutr. 14:77-92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00507.x
  9. Gumus, E., Y. Kaya, B. A. Balci and B. B. Acar. 2009. Partial replacement of fishmeal with tuna liver meal in diets for common carp fry, Cyprinus carpio L., 1758. Pak. Vet. J. 29(4):154-160.
  10. Gumus, E., Y. Kaya, B. A. Balci, B. Aydin, I. Gulle and M. Gokoglu. 2010. Replacement of fishmeal with sand Smelt (Atherina boyeri) meal in practical diets for Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus). Isr. J. Aquac.-Bamidgeh 62(3):172-180.
  11. Gumus, E. and F. Erdogan. 2010. Effects of partial substitution of fish meal with tuna liver meal on the fatty acid profile of nile tilapia fry, Oreochromis niloticus. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 16(Suppl-B):283-290.
  12. Hardy, R. W. 2006. Worldwide fish meal production outlook and the use of alternative protein meals for aquaculture. In: Avances en Nutricion Acuicola VIII. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutricion Acuicola (Ed. L. E. C. Suarez, D. R. Marie, M. T. Salazar, M. G. N. Lopez, D. A. V. Cavazos, A. C. P. Cruz and A. G. Ortega). 15-17 Noviembre. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon Mexico. ISBN 970-694-333-5.
  13. Horvath, L., G. Tamas and C. Seagrave. 2002. Carp and pond culture. 2th ed, p. 170. Fishing News Books, A division of Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.
  14. Hu, M., Y. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhao, B. Xiong, X. Qian and Y. Zhao. 2008. Evaluation rendered animal protein ingresients for replacement of fish meal in practical diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Aquac. Res. 39:1475-1482. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01994.x
  15. IUPAC, 1979. Standart methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives, 6th Edition (Fifth Edition Method II.D.19) pp. 96-102, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
  16. Kanazawa, A., S. Teshima, M. Sakamoto and M. A. Awal. 1980. Requirement of Tilapia zillii for essential fatty acids. Bull. Japn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 33:47-55.
  17. Ng, W. K., P. K. Lim and H. Sidek. 2001. The influence of a dietary lipid source on growth, muscle fatty acid composition and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of hybrid tilapia. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 25:301-310. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023271901111
  18. Ng, W. K., C. B. Koh and B. D. Zubir. 2006. Palm oil-laden spent bleaching clay as a substitute for marine fish oil in the diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquacult. Nutr. 12:459-468. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2006.00449.x
  19. NRC. 1993. Nutrient requirements of fish. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  20. Pigott, G. M. 1989. The need to improve omega-3 content of cultured fish. World Aquac. 20:63-68.
  21. Rondan, M., M. Hernandez, M. A. Egea, B. Garcia, M. Jover, F. M. Rueda and F. Martinez. 2004. Effects of fishmeal replacement with soybean meal as protein source, and protein replacement with carbohydrates as an alternative energy source on sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo, fatty acid profile. Aquac. Res. 35: 1220-1227. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01130.x
  22. Sargent, R. J., D. R. Tocher and J. G. Bell. 2002. The lipids. In: Fish Nutrition (Ed. J. E. Halver and R. W. Hardy) 3rd ed. pp. 181-257. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
  23. Souza, N. E., M. Matsushita, C. C. Oliverira, M. R. B. Fraco and J. V. Visentainer. 2007. Manipulation of fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets with flaxseed oil. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:1677-1681. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2877
  24. Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie and D. A. Dickey. 1996. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc, New York, USA.
  25. Takeuchi, T., S. Satoh and V. Kiron. 2002. Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In: Nutrient Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture (Ed. C. D. Webster and C. E. Lim). pp. 245-261. CABI Publishing, Oxon, USA.
  26. Tocher, D. R., J. Fonseca-Madrigal, J. R. Dick, W. K. Ng, J. G. Bell and P. J. Campbell. 2004. Effects of temperature and diets containing palm oli on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 137:49-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2003.10.002
  27. Tonial, I. B., F. B. Stevanato, M. Matsushita, N. E. DeSouza, W. M. Furuya and J. V. Visentainer. 2009. Optimization of flaxseed time length in adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as a fuluction of muscle omega-3 fatty acids composition. Aquacult. Nutr. 15:564-568. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2008.00623.x
  28. Visentainer, J. V., N. E. Souza, M. Makoro, C. Hayashi and M. R. B. Franco. 2005. Influence of diets enriched with flaxseed oil on the alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic fatty acid in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Food Chem. 90:557-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.016
  29. Watanabe, T., V. Viyakarn, H. Kimura, K. Oqawa, N. E. Okamoto and N. Iso. 1992. Utilization of soybean meal as a protein source in a newly developed soft-dry pellet for yellowtail. Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi. 58:1761-1773. https://doi.org/10.2331/suisan.58.1761
  30. Yang, Y., S. Xie, Y. Cui, X. Zhu, W. Lei and Y. Yang. 2006. Partial and total replacement of fish meal with poultry by-product meal in diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Aquac. Res. 37:40-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01391.x

피인용 문헌

  1. 1. fingerlings vol.97, pp.1, 2011, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10223
  2. 2. ) during Partial Freezing and Chilled Storage vol.38, pp.3, 2012, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10223