DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Chemical Composition and Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Metabolisable Energy of Wheat Screenings

Mazhari, M.;Golian, A.;Kermanshahi, H.

  • Received : 2010.04.12
  • Accepted : 2010.06.28
  • Published : 2011.03.01

Abstract

Three trials were conducted to determine the available energy of different wheat screening varieties collected from different locations of Khorasan in Iran. In experiment 1, chemical composition and the nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy (TMEn) were evaluated. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, in which, each wheat screening sample was tube fed to adult roosters, and the excreta were collected for 48-h. In Exp. 2 and 3, five and two wheat screening verities-based diets with or without xylanase and phytase were fed to 16-day old battery reared chicks respectively, and total feed consumption and excreta were measured during next three days. The variable nature of wheat screening varieties led to significant differences in mean TMEn values (p<0.01). The TMEn values of samples determined with adult roosters varied by ${\pm}5.03%$ of the mean value ($3,097.65{\pm}49.32\;kcal/kg$) and ranged from 2,734.90 to 3,245.12 kcal/kg. There was a significant correlation (p<0.05) between crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) with TMEn, and the greatest correlation coefficient was observed between NDF and TMEn (r = -0.947; p<0.001). The optimal equation in terms of $R^2$ from using a single chemical analysis was obtained with NDF: TMEn = 4,152.09-27.80 NDF ($R^2$ = 0.90, p<0.0001), and the TME prediction equation was improved by the addition of the crude protein (CP) and ASH content to sequential analysis: TMEn = 3,656.97-28.65 NDF+32.54 CP+38.70 ASH ($R^2$ = 0.98, p<0.0001). The average AMEn values of 5 and 2 wheat screening varieties determined with young broiler chickens were $2,968.41{\pm}25.70\;kcal/kg$ and $2,976.38{\pm}8.34\;kcal/kg$ in Exp. 2 and Exp. 3, respectively. Addition of xylanase and phytase to wheat screenings resulted in significant (p<0.01) improvement in AMEn by 4.21 and 2.92%, respectively.

Keywords

Wheat Screening;Chemical Content;True Metabolisable Energy;Apparent Metabolisable Energy;Xylanase;Phytase

References

  1. Annison, G. and M. Choct. 1991. Anti-nutritive activities of cereal non-starch polysaccharides in broiler diets and strategies minimizing their effects. World's Poult. Sci. J. 47:232-242. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19910019
  2. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15th. Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
  3. Audren, G. P., H. L. Calssen, K. V. Schwean and V. Raca. 2002. Nutritional value of wheat screening of broiler chickens. J. Anim. Sci. 82:393-398. https://doi.org/10.4141/A01-071
  4. Bedford, M. R. 1995. Mechanism of action and potential environmental benefits from the use of feed enzymes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 53:145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)02018-U
  5. Biely, J. and Y. Pomeranz. 1975. The amino acid composition of wild buckwheat and no wheat feed screenings. Poult. Sci. 54:761-766. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0540761
  6. Blas, E., J. Fernandez-Carmona, C. Cervera and J. J. Pascual. 2000. Nutritive value of coarse and fine wheat brans for rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 88:239-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00212-1
  7. Carre, B., A. Idi, S. Maisonnier, J. P. Melcion, F. X. Oury, J. Gomez and P. Pluchard. 2002. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet. Br. Poult. Sci. 43:404-415. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120103684
  8. Coelho, M. B. and E. T. Kornegay. 1996. Phytase in animal nutrition and waste management. BASF Corp., Mount Olive, NJ.
  9. Cromwell, G. L., T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, T. D. Crenshaw, R. A. Easter, R. C. C. R. Hamilton, G. M. Hill, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, J. L. Nelssen, J. E. Pettigrew, T. L. Veum and J. T. Yen. 2000. Variability among sources and laboratories in analyses of wheat middlings. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2652-2658.
  10. Frolich, W. 1990. Chelating properties of dietary fiber and phytate: The role for mineral availability. Pages 83-93 in New Developments in Dietary Fibre (Ed. I. Furda and C. J. Brine). Plenum Press, New York, NY.
  11. Golian, A. and S. Parsaie. 1996. Utilization of wheat screening in laying hen nutrition. J. Agric. Sci. Karaj, Iran, 27:105-114.
  12. Gutierrez, A., M. W. A. Verstegen, L. A. Den Hartog, P. Perez de Ayala and M. J. Villamide. 2008. Effect of wheat cultivar and enzyme addition to broiler chicken diets on nutrient digestibility, performance, and apparent metabolizable energy content, Poult. Sci. 87:759-767. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00437
  13. Hew, L. I., V. Ravindran, Y. Mollah and W. L. Bryden. 1998. Influence of exogenous xylanase supplementation on apparent metabolisable energy and amino acid digestibility in wheat for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 75:83-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00206-5
  14. Kim, J. C., B. P. Mullan, P. H. Simmins and J. R. Pluske. 2003. Variation in the chemical composition of wheats grown in Western Australia as influenced by variety, growing region, season and post-harvest storage. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 54:541-550. (http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/43/paper/AR02183.htm) https://doi.org/10.1071/AR02183
  15. Kim, J. C., P. H. Simmins, B. P. Mullan and J. R. Pluske. 2005. The digestible energy value of wheat for pigs with special reference to the post-weaned animal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 122:257-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.022
  16. King, D., D. Ragland and O. Adeola. 1997. Apparent and true metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs for ducks. Poult. Sci. 76:1418-1423. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.10.1418
  17. Li, Y. Z. and E. S. Posner. 1989. An experimental milling technique for various flour extraction levels. Cereal Chem. 66:324-328.
  18. McCracken, K. J. and G. Quintin. 2000. Metabolisable energy content of diets and broiler performance as affected by wheat specific weight and enzyme supplementation. Br. Poult. Sci. 41:332-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/713654927
  19. Mollah, Y., W. L. Bryden, I. R. Wallis, D. Balnave and E. F. Annison. 1983. Studies on low metabolizable energy wheats for poultry using conventional and rapid assay procedures and the effects of processing. Br. Poult. Sci. 24:81-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668308416716
  20. Nortey, T. N., J. F. Patience, J. S. Sands, N. L. Trottier and R. T. Zijlstra. 2008. Effects of xylanase supplementation on the apparent digestibility and digestible content of energy, amino acids, phosphorus, and calcium in wheat and wheat-products from dry milling fed to grower pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:3450-3464. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0472
  21. Pettersson, D. and P. Aman. 1989. Enzyme supplementation of a poultry diet containing rye and wheat. Br. J. Nutr. 62:139-149. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19890014
  22. Pirgozliev, V. R., C. L. Birch, S. P. Rose, P. S. Kettlewell and M. R. Bedford. 2003. Chemical composition and the nutritive quality of different wheat cultivars for broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:464-475. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166031000085594
  23. Rajabzadeh, N. 2001. Advance technique in cereal, University of Tehran, pp. 150-290.
  24. Ravindran, V., P. H. Selle and W. L. Bryden. 1999. Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination with glycanase, on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poult. Sci. 78:1588-1595 (http://ps.fass.org/cgi/reprint/78/11/1588?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=phytase&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT) https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.11.1588
  25. Ravindran, V., P. H. Selle and W. L. Bryden. 1999b. Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination, with glycanase on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poult. Sci. 78:2047-2054.
  26. Ravindran, V., P. H. Selle, G. Ravindran, P. C. H. Morel, A. K. Kies and W. L. Bryden. 2001. Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poult. Sci. 80:338-344. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.3.338
  27. Ravindran, V., Z. V. Tilman, P. C. H. Morel, G. Ravindran and G. D. Coles. 2007. Influence of ${\beta}$-glucanase supplementation on the metabolisable energy and ileal nutrient digestibility of normal starch and waxy barleys for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134:45-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.04.012
  28. Robbins, D. H. and J. D. Firman. 2006. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy of poultry by-product meal for chickens and turkeys by various methods. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 5(8):753-758. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2006.753.758
  29. Saki, A. A. and A. Alipana. 2005. Physicochemical content, metabolizable energy and in-vitro protein digestibility of wheat screening diet on growth rate of broiler. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4(1):11-15. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.11.15
  30. SAS Institute. 2003. The SAS System for Microsoft windows, Release 9.1. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  31. Scott, T. A. 2000. Significant variability of voluntary intake of wheat-and barley-based diets by broiler chicks. Proc. XXI World's Poult. Congr., Montreal, Canada [CD-ROM]. World's Poultry Science Association, Odijk, the Netherlands.
  32. Selle, P. H., V. Ravindran, R. A. Caldwell and W. L. Bryden. 2000. Phytate and phytase: Consequences for protein utilisation. Nutr. Res. Rev. 13:255-278. https://doi.org/10.1079/095442200108729098
  33. Sibbald, I. R. 1976. A bioassay for TME in feeding stuffs. Poult. Sci. 55:303-308. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0550303
  34. Sibbald, I. R. 1982. Measurement of bioavilable energy in poultry feeding stuffs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67: 993-1048.
  35. Slominski, B. A., D. Boros, L. D. Campbell, W. Guenter and O. Jones. 2004. Wheat by-products in poultry nutrition. Part I. Chemical and nutritive composition of wheat screenings, bakery by-products and wheat mill run. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84:421-428. https://doi.org/10.4141/A03-112
  36. Smits, C. H. and G. Annison. 1996. Non-starch plant polysaccharides in broiler nutrition-towards a physiologically valid approach to their determination. World's Poult. Sci. J. 52:203-221. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19960016
  37. Stapleton, P. D., B. Bragg and J. Biely. 1980. The botanical and chemical composition and nutritive value of wheat feed screenings. Poult. Sci. 59: 333-340. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0590333
  38. Svihus, B. and M. Gullord. 2002. Effect of chemical content and physical characteristics on nutritional value of wheat, barley and oats for poultry. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 102:71-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00254-7
  39. Terence, J. D., J. W. Peter, M. Adam, F. D. Fanning and R. D. William. 2000. Digestive function in Australian magpie geese (Anseranas semipalmata). Aust. J. Zool. 48:265-279. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO00011
  40. Thompson, L. U. and J. H. Yoon. 1984. Starch digestibility as affected by polyphenols and phytic acid. J. Food Sci. 49:1228-1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb10443.x
  41. Villamide, M. J. and L. D. San Juan. 1998. Effect of chemical composition of sunflower seed meal on its true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility. Poult. Sci. 77:1884-1892. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.12.1884
  42. Wan, H. F., W. Chen, Z. L. Qi, P. Peng and J. Peng. 2009. Prediction of true metabolizable energy from chemical composition of wheat milling by-products for ducks. Poult. Sci. 88:92-97. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00160
  43. Wu, Y. B., V. Ravindran and W. H. Hendriks. 2003. Effects of microbial phytase, produced by solid-state fermentation, on the performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers fed maize- and wheat-based diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:710-718. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660310001643697
  44. Zyla, K., J. Koreleski, S. Swiatkiewicz, D. R. Ledoux, and J. Piironen. 2001. Influence of supplemental enzymes on the performance and phosphorus excretion of broilers fed wheatbased diets to 6 weeks of age. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 89:113-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00227-3

Cited by

  1. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers vol.13, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015131-5416
  2. Effects of wet feeding and enzyme supplementation on nutritional value of wheat screenings for broiler chickens vol.57, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16202