Effects of Energy Intake on Performance, Mobilization and Retention of Body Tissue, and Metabolic Parameters in Dairy Cows with Special Regard to Effects of Pre-partum Nutrition on Lactation - A Review -

DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Remppis, S.;Steingass, H.;Gruber, L.;Schenkel, H.

  • 투고 : 2010.04.07
  • 심사 : 2010.08.05
  • 발행 : 2011.04.01

초록

The present review focuses on the effects of energy intake on performance, changes in body tissue during lactation, and metabolic parameters in dairy cows. Especially, pre-partum nutrition and its influence on lactation are emphasized. In recent decades the increase in genetic potential of dairy cows has increased milk yield. This fact sharpens the problem of a negative energy balance in early lactation because the amount of energy required for maintenance and milk production exceeds the amount of energy cows can consume. Around parturition, reduced feed intake reinforces the situation. Continuing negative energy balance causes decreasing milk yield, fertility problems, and incidence of metabolic diseases. Hence, the cow has to rely on body reserves that were stored in late lactation and the dry period. It is evident that the nutritional status pre-partum acts as the key factor for milk yield and fertility parameters in the following lactation. Cows overfed during the foregoing gestation and which have gained large quantities of body fat have lower dry matter intake along with the need to mobilize larger quantities of body reserves in lactation. The milk yield in the following lactation is lower than in cows fed according to their requirements. Cows restrictively fed in late gestation have a higher feed intake in lactation and a lower mobilization of body reserves. The effect of energy intake post-partum plays only a minor role for performance parameters in lactation. Lipid mobilized from body reserves makes a substantial contribution to the energetic cost of milk production in early lactation and adipose tissue undergoes specific metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue is degraded to free fatty acids, which are used in liver for energy purposes. High lipid mobilisation promotes the development of a fatty liver and therefore a reduced gluconeogenesis.

키워드

Dry Matter Intake;Milk Production;Dry Period;Health;Mobilization;Metabolic Parameters

참고문헌

  1. Agenas, S., E. Burstet and K. Holtenius. 2003. Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period. 1. Feed intake, body weight, and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 86:870-882. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73670-4
  2. Allrich, R. D., K. A. Berghorn and C. H. Noller. 1987. Influence of energy balance on ovarian activity and estrous behavior in postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 70 (Suppl. 1):184.
  3. Andersson, L., A. H. Gustafsson and U. Emanuelson. 1991. Effect of hyperketonaemia and feeding on fertility in dairy cows. Theriogenology 36:521-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(91)90392-Q
  4. Andrew, S. M., D. R. Waldo and R. A. Erdman. 1994. Direct analysis of body composition of dairy cows at three physiological stages. J. Dairy Sci. 77:3022-3033. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77244-1
  5. Badinga, L., R. J. Collier, C. J. Wilcox and W. W. Thatcher. 1985. Interrelationships of milk yield, body weight, and reproductive performance. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1828-1831. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(85)81034-1
  6. Baird, G. D. 1982. Primary ketosis in the high-production dairy cow: Clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention, and outlook. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1-10. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82146-2
  7. Baumann, D. E. and W. B. Currie. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: A Review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1514-1529. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83111-0
  8. Beam, S. W. and W. R. Butler. 1999. Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 54:411-424.
  9. Beever, D. E., S. B. Cammell, J. D. Sutton, N. Rowe and G. E. Perrott. 1998. Energy metabolism in high yielding cows. In: Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, Penicuik:13.
  10. Bell, A. W. 1979. Lipid metabolism in liver and selected tissues and in the whole body of ruminant animals. Prog. Lipid Res. 18:117-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7827(79)90013-4
  11. Bell, A. W. 1995. Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2804-2819.
  12. Bertics, S. J., R. R. Grummer, D. W. La Count, E. E. Stoddard and C. P. Cadorniga. 1991. Influence of prepartum dry matter intake on liver lipid percentage in periparturient cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):276.
  13. Bertics, S. J., R. R. Grummer, C. Cadorniga-Valino and E. E. Stoddard. 1992. Effect of prepartum dry matter intake on liver triglycerides concentration and early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1914-1922. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77951-X
  14. Bines, J. A. and S. V. Morant. 1983. The effect of body condition on metabolic changes associated with intake of food by the cow. Br. J. Nutr. 50:81-89. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19830074
  15. Blum, J. W., F. Jans, W. Moses, D. Frohli, M. Zemp, M. Wanner, I. C. Hart, R. Thun and U. Keller. 1985. Twentyfour-hour pattern of blood hormone and metabolite concentrations in high-yielding dairy cows: Effects of feeding low or high amounts of starch, or crystalline fat. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. Reihe A 32:401-418.
  16. Boisclair, Y., D. G. Grieve, J. B. Stone, O. B. Allen and G. K. Macleod. 1986. Effect of prepartum energy, body condition, and sodium bicarbonate on production of cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2636-2647. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80711-1
  17. Boisclair, Y., D. G. Grieve, O. B. Allen and R. A. Curtis. 1987. Effect of prepartum energy, body condition, and sodium bicarbonate on health and blood metabolites of Holstein cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 70:2280-2290. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80288-6
  18. Broster, W. H. and V. J. Broster. 1984. Reviews of the progress of dairy science: long term effects of plane of nutrition on the performance of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Res. 51:149-196. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900023414
  19. Broster, W. H., A. J. Clements, V. J. Broster, T. Smith, J. W. Siviter and R. E. Hill. 1989. Effect of amount and composition of feed given over three lactations on the performance of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Res. 56:561-577. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900029083
  20. Broster, W. H. and V. J. Broster. 1998. Body score of dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 65:155-173. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029997002550
  21. Burke, C. R. and J. R. Roche. 2007. Effects of pasture feeding during the periparturient period on postpartum anovulation in grazed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4304-4312. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-788
  22. Butler, W. R., R. W. Everett and C. E. Coppock. 1981. The relationship between energy balance, milk production and ovulation in postpartum Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 53:742-748.
  23. Butler, W. R. and R. D. Smith. 1989. Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 72:767-783. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79169-4
  24. Cameron, R. E. B., P. B. Dyk, T. H. Herdt, J. B. Kaneene, R. Miller, H. F. Buchholtz, J. S. Liesmann, M. J. Vandehaar and R. S. Emery. 1998. Dry cow diet, management, and energy balance as risk factors for displaced abomasum in high producing dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 81:132-139. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75560-2
  25. Carlson, D. B., M. S. Laubach, W. L. Keller and C. S. Park. 2006. Effect of prepartum compensatory nutrition regimen on metabolism and performance of dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 101:251-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.11.017
  26. Castaneda-Gutierrez E., S. H. Pelton, R. O. Gilbert and W. R. Butler. 2009. Effects of peripartum dietary energy supplementation of dairy cows on metabolites, liver function and reproductive variables. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 112:301-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.04.028
  27. Chilliard, Y. 1987. Literature survey: body composition and lipid motabolism in adipose tissues and liver during pregnancy and lactation. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 27:327-398. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19870301
  28. Chilliard, Y., M. Cisse, R. Lefaivre and B. Remond. 1991. Body composition of dairy cows according to lactation stage, somatotropin treatment, and concentrate supplementation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3103-3116. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78496-8
  29. Chilliard, Y. 1992. Physiological constraints to milk production: Factors which determine nutrient partitioning, lactation persistency, and mobilization of body reserves. In: World review of Animal Production 27:20-26.
  30. Chilliard, Y., F. Bocquier and M. Doreau. 1998. Digestive and metabolic adaptions of ruminants to undernurtition, and consequences on reproduction. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 38:131-152. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19980201
  31. Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay, Y. Faulconnier, M. Bonnet, J. Roul and F. Bocquier. 2000. Adipose tissue metabolism and its role in adaptions to undernutrition in ruminants. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59:127-134. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002966510000015X
  32. Colazo, M. G., A. Hayirli, L. Doepel and D. J. Ambrose. 2009. Reproductive performance of dairy cows is influenced by prepartum feed restriction and dietary fatty acid source. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2562-2571. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1517
  33. Coppock, C. E. 1974. Displaced abomasum in dairy cattle: etiological factors. J. Dairy Sci. 57:926-933. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(74)84988-X
  34. Coppock, C. E., C. H. Noller and S. A. Wolfe. 1974. Effect of energy-concentrate ratio in complete feeds fed ad libitum on energy intake in relation to requirements by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 57:1371-1380. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(74)85069-1
  35. Crowe, M. A. 2008. Review article: Resumption of ovarian cyclcity in post-partum beef and dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43:20-28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01210.x
  36. Corro, M., I. Rubio, E. Castillo, L. Galindo, A. Aluja, C. S. Galina and C. Murcia. 1999. Effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals in dual- purpose cattle farms in the tropics of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Prev. Vet. Med. 38:101-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(98)00117-2
  37. Coulon, J. B. and B. Remond. 1991. Variations in milk output and milk protein content in response to the level of energy supply to the dairy cow: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 29:31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(91)90118-A
  38. Dann, H. M., D. E. Morin, G. A. Bollero, M. R. Murphy and J. K. Drackley. 2005. Prepartum intake, postpartum induction of ketosis, and periparturient disorders affect the metabolic status of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:3249-3264. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73008-3
  39. Davenport, D. G. and A. H. Rakes. 1969. Effects of prepartum feeding level and body condition on the postpartum performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 52:1037-1043. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(69)86689-0
  40. Degaris, P. J., I. J. Lean, A. R. Rabiee and C. Heuer. 2008. Effects of increasing days of exposure to prepartum transition diets on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows. Aust. Vet. J. 86:341-351. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00335.x
  41. De Vries, M. J. and R. F. Veerkamp. 2000. Energy balance of dairy cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. J. Dairy Sci. 83:62-69. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74856-9
  42. Domecq, J. J., A. L. Skidmore, J. W. Lloyd and J. B. Kaneene. 1997. Relationship between body condition scores and milk yield in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:101-112. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75917-4
  43. Douglas, G. N., T. R. Overton, H. G. Bateman, H. M. Dann and J. K. Drackley. 2006. Prepartal plane of nutrition, regardless of dietary energy source, affects periparturient metabolism and dry matter intake. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2141-2157. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72285-8
  44. Drackley, J. K. 1999. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier? J. Dairy Sci. 82:2259-2273. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75474-3
  45. Edmonson, A. J., I. J. Lean, L. D. Weaver, T. Farver and G. Webster. 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:68-78. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0
  46. Engelhard, T., A. Meyer and R. Staufenbiel. 2007. Versuch zum Vergleich von ein- und zweiphasiger Trockensteherfutterung. In: Forum angewandte Forschung in der Rinder- und Schweinefutterung. 6-9.
  47. Erb, H. N. and Y. T. Grohn. 1988. Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2557-2571. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79845-8
  48. Fagan, J. G. and J. F. Roche. 1986. Reproductive activity in postpartum dairy cows based on progesterone concentration in milk or rectal examination. Ir. Vet. J. 40:124-131.
  49. Farries, E. 1983a. Stoffwechselstorungen und ihr EinfluB auf die Zusammensetzung der Milch. Zuchtungskunde 43:265-274.
  50. Farries, E. 1983b. Die Milchzusammensetzung als Hinweis auf Stoffwechselbelastungen und Fortpflanzungsstorungen. Welt der Milch 37:1207-1213.
  51. Ferguson, J. D. and C. J. Sniffen. 1991. Effect of body condition on intake of rations supplemented with fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):277.
  52. Ferguson, J. D. 1996. Diet, production and reproduction in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:173-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00898-5
  53. Ferris, C. P., F. J. Gordon, D. C. Patterson, C. S. Mayne and D. J. Kilpatrick. 1999. The influence of dairy cow genetic merit on the direct and residual response to level of concentrate supplementation. J. Agric. Sci. 132:467-481. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859699006474
  54. Ferris, C. P., F. J. Gordon, D. C. Patterson, C. S. Mayne and D. J. Kilpatrick. 2003. The effect of concentrate feed level on the response of lactating dairy cows to a constant proportion of fodder beet inclusion in a grass- based diet. Grass Forage Sci. 58:17-27. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.2003.00347.x
  55. Friggens, N. C., D. E. F. Hay and J. D. Oldham. 1993. Interactions between major nutrients in the diet and the lactational performance of rats. Br. J. Nutr. 69:59-71. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19930009
  56. Friggens, N. C., G. C. Emmans, I. Kyriazakis, J. D. Oldham and M. Lewis. 1998. Feed intake relative to stage of lactation for dairy cows consuming total mixed diets with a high or low ration of concentrate to forage. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2228-2239. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75802-3
  57. Friggens, N. C., K. L. Ingvartsen and G. C. Emmans. 2004. Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 87:988-1000. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73244-0
  58. Fronk, T. J., L. H. Schultz and A. R. Hardie. 1980. Effect of dry period overconditioning on subsequent metabolic disorders and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1080-1090. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83050-5
  59. Frood, M. J. and D. Croxton. 1978. The use of condition scoring in dairy cows and its relationship with milk yield and live weight. Anim. Prod. 27:285-297. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100036175
  60. Gallo, L., P. Carnier, M. Cassandro, R. Mantovani, L. Bailoni, B. Contiero and G. Bittante. 1996. Change in Body condition score of Holstein cows as affected by parity and mature equivalent milk yield. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1009-1015. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76452-4
  61. Gardner, R. W. 1969. Interactions of energy levels offered to Holstein cows prepartum and postpartum. I. Production responses and blood composition changes. J. Dairy Sci. 52:1973-1984. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(69)86882-7
  62. Garnsworthy, P. C. and J. H. Topps. 1982. The effect of body condition of dairy cows at calving on their food intake and performance when given complete diets. Anim. Prod. 35:113-119. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100000878
  63. Garnsworthy, P. C. and G. P. Jones. 1987. The influence of body condition at calving and dietary protein supply on voluntary food intake and performance in dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 44:347-352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100012277
  64. Garnsworthy, P. C. 1988. The effect of energy reserves at calving on performance of dairy cows. In: Nutrition and lactation in the dairy cow (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy). 46th Univ. Nottingham Easter School Agric. Sci., Butterworths, Kent, United Kingdom. pp. 157-170.
  65. Garnsworthy, P. C. and C. D. Hugget. 1992. The influence of the fat concentration of the diet on the response by dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 54:7-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000335610002050X
  66. Garnsworthy, P. C. and G. P. Jones. 1993. The effects of dietary fibre and starch concentrations on the response by dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 57:15-21. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100006553
  67. Garnsworthy, P. C. 2007. Body condition score in dairy cows: Target for production and fertility. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2006 (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, United Kingdom. pp. 61-86.
  68. Gelfert, C.-C., J.-A. Kupsch and R. Staufenbiel. 2003. Control of energy balance using the alteration of body condition in dairy herd health management. In: ACTA Vet Scan, Proceedings of the 11th International Conf on Prod Diseases in Farm Animals: 195 (Abstr.).
  69. Goff, J. P. and R. L. Horst. 1997. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationships to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1260-1268. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76055-7
  70. Grieve, D. G., S. Korver, Y. S. Rijpkema and G. Hof. 1986. Relationship between milk composition and some nutritional parameters in early lactation. Livest. Prod. 14:239-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(86)90083-7
  71. Gruber, L., R. Steinwender and W. Baumgartner. 1995. Einfluss von Grundfutterqualitat und Kraftfutterniveau auf Leistung, Stoffwechsel und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Kuhen der Rasse Fleckvieh und Holstein Frisian. Bericht uber die 22. Tierzuchttagung, BAL Gumpenstein, 9-10. Mai:1-49.
  72. Gruber, L., T. Guggenberger, A. Steinwidder, A. Schauer and J. Hausler. 2003. Effect of stage of lactation and live weight change on regression coefficients of milk yield, NEL content and concentrate level for predicting DMI of dairy cows. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 12:21.
  73. Grum, D. E., J. K. Drackley, R. S. Younker, D. W. La Count and J. J. Veenhuizen. 1996. Nutrition during the dry period and hepatic lipid metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1850-1864. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76553-0
  74. Grummer, R. R. 1995. Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the trasition dairy cow. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2820-2833.
  75. Grummer, R. R., P. C. Hoffmann, M. L. Luck and S. L. Bertics. 1995. Effect of prepartum and postpartum dietary energy on growth and lactation of primiparous cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:172-180. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76627-9
  76. Guedon, L., J. Saumande, F. Dupron, C. Couquet and B. Desbals. 1999. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides in postpartum beef cows and their relationship to the resumption of ovulation. Theriogenology 51:1405-1415. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(99)00083-7
  77. Guo, J., R. R. Peters and R. A. Kohn. 2007. Effect of a transition diet on production performance and metabolism in periparturient cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5247-5258. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0326
  78. Hady, P. J., J. J. Domecq and J. B. Kaneene. 1994. Frequency and precision of body condition scoring in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1543-1547. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77095-8
  79. Harrison, R. O., S. P. Ford, J. W. Young, A. J. Conley and A. E. Freeman. 1990. Increased milk production versus reproductive and energy status of high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2749-2758. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78960-6
  80. Hattan, A. J., D. E. Beever, S. B. Cammell and J. D. Sutton. 2001. Energy metabolism in high yielding dairy cows during early lactation. In: Energy metabolism in animals, EAAP publication No. 103:325-328.
  81. Hawkins, D. E., K. D. Niswender, G. M. Oss, C. L. Moeller, K. G. Odde, H. R. Sawyer and G. D. Niswender. 1995. An increase in serum lipids increases luteal lipid content and alters the disappearance rate of progesterone in cows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:541-545.
  82. Holcomb, C. S., H. H. Van Horn, H. H. Head, M. B. Hall and C. J. Wilcox. 2001. Effects of prepartum dry matter intake and forage percentage on postpartum performance of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2051-2058. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74649-8
  83. Holtenius, K., S. Agenas, C. Delavaud and Y. Chilliard. 2003. Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses. J. Dairy Sci. 86:883-891. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73671-6
  84. Holter, J. B., M. J. Slotnick, H. H. Hayes, C. K. Bozak, W. E. Urban Jr. and M. L. McGillard. 1990. Effect of prepartum dietary energy on condition score, postpartum energy, nitrogen partitions, and lactation production responses. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3502-3511. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)79050-9
  85. Houghton, P. L., R. P. Lemenager, L. A. Horstmann, K. S. Hendrix and G. E. Moss. 1990a. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy level and early weaning on reproductive performance of beef cows and preweaning calf gain. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1438-1446.
  86. Houghton, P. L., R. P. Lemenager, K. S. Hendrix, G. E. Moss and T. S. Stewart. 1990b. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy intake and stage of production of energy utilization by beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1447-1456.
  87. Huszenicza, G., S. Fekete, L. Molnar, J. Haraszti and L. Solti. 1987. Influence of the body condition, body mass change and different levels of energy intake on the postpartal ovarian activity of beef cows. Acta. Vet. Hung. 35:359-372.
  88. Imakawa, K., M. L. Day, D. D. Zalesky, A. Clutter, R. J. Kittock and J. E. Kinder. 1987. Effects of 17beta-estradiol and diets varying in energy on secretion of luteinizing hormone in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 64:805.
  89. Ingvartsen, K. L. and J. B. Andersen. 2000. Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: A review focusing on periparturient animals. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1573-1597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75029-6
  90. Janicek, B. N., P. J. Kononoff, A. M. Gehmann, K. Karges and M. L. Gibson. 2007. Short communication: Effect of increasing levels of corn bran on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4313-4316. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0275
  91. Johnson, D. G. and D. E. Otterby. 1981. Influence of dry period diet on early postpartum health, feed intake, milk production, and reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64:290-295. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82566-0
  92. Johnson, C. L. 1984. The effect of feeding in early lactation on feed intake, yields of milk, fat and protein and on the liveweight change over one lactation in dairy cows. J. Agric. Sci. 103:629-638. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600043744
  93. Jones, G. P. and P. C. Garnsworthy. 1989. The effects of dietary energy content on the response of dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 49:183-189. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000335610003230X
  94. Kanitz, W., F. Becker, G. Dietl, N. Reinsch and R. Staufenbiel. 2003. Beziehungen zwischen Milchleistung, Energieversorgung und Fruchtbarkeit unter den Bedingungen von Hochleistung beim Rind. Zuchtungskunde 75:489-498.
  95. Kappel, L. C., R. H. Ingraham, E. B. Morgan, L. Zeringue, D. Wilson and D. K. Babcock. 1984. Relationship between fertility and blood glucose and cholesterol concnetrations in Holstein cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:2607-2612.
  96. Kaufmann, T. E. G., M. Kirchgessner and H. L. Muller. 1987. Energiebilanz und Energieverwertung bei der Milchkuh wahrend und nach energetischer Uberversorgung. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 58:75-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.1987.tb00150.x
  97. Keady, T. W. J. and C. S. Mayne, D. J. Kilpatrick and M. A. McCoy. 2005. Effect of level and source of nutrients in late gestation on subsequent milk yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 94:237-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.12.001
  98. Kim, I. H. and G. H. Suh. 2003. Effect of the amount of body condition loss from the dry to near calving periods on the subsequent body condition change, occurance of postpartum diseases, metabolic parameters and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. Theriogenology 60:1445-1456. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00135-3
  99. Klawuhn, D. and R. Staufenbiel. 1997. Aussagekraft der Ruckenfettdicke zum Korperfettgehalt beim Rind. Tierarztl. Praxis 25:133-138.
  100. Knight, C. H. 2001. Lactation and gestation in dairy cows: Flexibility avoids nutitional extremes. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 60:527-537. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS2001115
  101. Kokkonen, T., A. Tesfa, M. Tuori and L. Syrjala-Qvist. 2004. Concentrate feeding strategy of dairy cows during transition period. Livest. Prod. Sci. 86:239-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2003.09.003
  102. Kraft, W. and U. M. Durr. 2005. Klinische Labordiagnostik in der Tiermedizin. 6th Ed. Schattauer, Stuttgart and New York.
  103. Kruip, T. A. M., G. A. L. Meijer, T. Rukkwamsuk and T. Wensing. 1998. Effects of feed in the dry period on fertility of dairy cows post partum. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 33:165-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.1998.tb01336.x
  104. Kunz, P. L., J. W. Blum, I. C. Hart, H. Bickel and J. Landis. 1985. Effects of different energy intakes before and after calving on food intake, performance and blood hormones and metabolites in dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 40:219-231. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100025320
  105. Lake, S. L., T. R. Weston, E. J. Scholljegerdes, C. M. Murrieta, B. M. Alexander, D. C. Rule, G. E. Moss and B. W. Hess. 2007. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 85:717-730.
  106. Land, C. and J. D. Leaver. 1981. The effect of body condition at calving on the production of Frisian cows and heifers. Anim. Prod. 32:362-363.
  107. Lucy, M. C., C. R. Staples, F. M. Michel, W. W. Thatcher and D. J. Bolt. 1991. Effect of feeding calcium soaps to early postpartum dairy cows on plasma prostglandine $F2{\alpha}$, lutenizing hormone and follicular growth. J. Dairy Sci. 74:483-489. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78195-2
  108. Lucy, M. C. 2003. Mechanisms linking nutrition and reproduction in postpartum cows. Reproduction 61:237-254.
  109. Macmillan, K. L., I. J. Lean and C. T. Westwood. 1996. The effects of lactation on the fertility of dairy cows. Aust. Vet. J. 73:141-147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1996.tb10007.x
  110. Markusfeld, O. 1985. Relationship between overfeeding, metritis and ketosis in high yielding dairy cows. Vet. Rec. 116:489-491. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.116.18.489
  111. Markusfeld, O., N. Galon and E. Ezra. 1997. Body condition score, health, yield and fertility in dairy cows. Vet. Rec. 141:67-72. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.141.3.67
  112. Martin, R. A. and F. R. Ehle. 1986. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution. J. Dairy Sci. 69:88-98. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80373-3
  113. McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards, J. F. D. Greenhalgh and C. A. Morgan. 2002. Animal Nutrition. 6th Ed. Pearson Education Limited, Essex.
  114. McGowan, M. R., R. F. Veerkamp and L. Anderson. 1996. Effects of genotype and feeding system on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 46:33-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(96)00010-3
  115. McNamara, J. P. and J. K. Hillers. 1986a. Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 1. Lipid synthesis in response to increased milk production and decreased energy intake. J. Dairy Sci. 69:3032-3041. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80766-4
  116. McNamara, J. P. and J. K. Hillers. 1986b. Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 2. Lipolysis response to milk production and energy intake. J. Dairy Sci. 69:3042-3050 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80767-6
  117. McNamara, J. P. 1991. Regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in support of lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:706-719. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78217-9
  118. McNamara, S., J. J. Murphy, M. Rath and F. P. O'Mara. 2003a. Effects of different transition diets on energy balance, blood metabolites and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 84:195-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(03)00093-9
  119. McNamara, S., F. P. O'Mara, M. Rath and J. J. Murphy. 2003b. Effects of different transition diets on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2397-2408. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73834-X
  120. McNamara, S., J. J. Murphy, F. P. O'Mara, M. Rath and and J. F. Mee. 2008. Effect of milking frequency in early lactation on energy metabolism, milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 117:70-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.11.013
  121. Morrow, D. A. 1976. Fat cow syndrome. J. Dairy Sci. 59:1625-1629. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(76)84415-3
  122. Mulligan, F. J. and M. L. Doherty. 2008. Production diseases of the transition cow. Vet. J. 176:3-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.018
  123. Murdock, F. R. and A. S. Hodgson. 1969. Input-output relationships of cows fed two types of roughage and two levels of concentrate during complete lactations. J. Dairy Sci. 52:1961-1972. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(69)86881-5
  124. NRC (National Research Council). 2001. 7th Ed. National Academic Press, Washington DC.
  125. Nebel, R. L. and M. L. McGilliard. 1993. Interactions of high milk yield and reproductive performance in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3257-3268. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77662-6
  126. Nocek, J. E., J. E. English and D. G. Braund. 1983. Effects of various forage feeding programs during dry period on body condition and subsequent lactation health, production, and reproduction. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1108-1118. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(83)81908-0
  127. Noro, M., V. Vargas, R.G. Pulido and F. Wittwer. 2006. Effects of two type of concentrate on energy and protein blood metabolites in grazing dairy cows during spring. Arch. Med. Vet. 38:227-323.
  128. Oldenbroek, J. K. 1988. The performance of Jersey cows and cows of larger dairy breeds on two complete diets with different roughage contents. Livest. Prod. Sci. 18:1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(88)90064-4
  129. Olsson, G., M. Emanuelson and H. Wiktorsson. 1998. Effects of different nutritional levels prepartum on the subsequent performance of dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 53:279-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00022-5
  130. Opsomer, G., M. Coryn, H. Deluyker and A. DeKruif. 1998. An analysis of ovarian dysfunction in high yielding dairy cows after calving based on progersterone profiles. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 33:193-204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.1998.tb01342.x
  131. Patton, J., D. A. Kenny, J. F. Mee, F. P. O'Mara, D. C. Wathes, M. Cook and J. J. Murphy. 2006. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1478-1487. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72215-9
  132. Rabelo, E., R. L. Rezende, S. J. Bertics and R. R. Grummer. 2003. Effects of transition diets varying in dietary energy density on lactation performance and ruminal parameters of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86:916-925. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73674-1
  133. Rabelo, E., R. L. Rezende, S. J. Bertics and R. R. Grummer. 2005. Effects of pre- and postfresh transition diets varying in dietary energy density on metabolic status of periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:4375-4383. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73124-6
  134. Reid, I. M., C. J. Roberts, R. J. Treacher and L. A. Williams. 1986. Effect of body condition at calving on tissue mobilisation, development of fatty liver and blood chemistry of dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 43:7-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100018298
  135. Reist, M., D. Erdin, D. von Euw, K. Tscuemperlin, H. Leuenberger, Y. Chilliard, H. M. Hammon, C. Morel, C. Phlipona, Y. Zbinden, N. Kuenzi and J. W. Blum. 2002. Estimation of energy balance at the individual and herd level using blood and milk traits in high-yielding dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:3314-3327. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74420-2
  136. Richards, M. W., J. C. Spitzner and M. B. Warner. 1986. Effect of varying levels of postpartum nutrition and body condition at calving on subsequent reproductive performance in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 62:300-306.
  137. Roche, J. F., D. Mackey and M. D. Diskin. 2000. Reproductive management of postpartum cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61:703-712. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(00)00107-X
  138. Roche, J. R., E. S. Kolver and J. K. Kay. 2005. Influence of precalving feed allowance on periparturient metabolic and hormonal responses and milk production in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:677-689. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72732-6
  139. Roche, J. R. 2007. Milk production responses to pre- and postcalving dry matter intake in grazing cows. Livest. Sci. 110:12-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.08.016
  140. Roche, J. R., K. A. Macdonald, C. R. Burke, J. M. Lee and D. P. Berry. 2007. Associations among body condition score, body weight and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 90:376-391. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)72639-5
  141. Rohrmoser, G. and M. Kirchgessner. 1982. Milchleistung und Milchinhaltsstoffe von Kuhen bei energetischer Unterversorgung und anschlieBender Realimentation. Zuchtungskunde 54:276-278.
  142. Ruegg, P. L., W. J. Goodger, C. A. Holmberg, L. D. Weaver and E. M. Huffmann. 1992. Relation among body condition score, milk production and serum urea nitrogen and cholesterol concentrations in high producing Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53:10-14.
  143. Rukkwamsuk, T., M. J. H. Geelen, T. A. M. Kruip and T. Wensing. 2000. Interrelation of fatty acid composition in adipose tissue, serum, and liver of dairy cows during the development of fatty liver postpartum. J. Dairy Sci. 83:52-59. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74854-5
  144. Ryan, G., J. J. Murphy, S. Crosse and M. Rath. 2003. The effect of pre-calving diet on post- calving cow performance. Livest. Prod. Sci. 79:61-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00143-4
  145. Shirley, J. E. 1994. Preparing the cow for a successful lactation. In: Proceedings of Southwest Nutrition Management Conference, Tucson, AZ. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. pp. 110-115.
  146. Sorensen, J. T. and C. Enevoldsen. 1991. Effect of dry period length on milk production in subsequent lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1277-1283. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78283-0
  147. Staples, C. R., W. W. Thatcher and J. H. Clark. 1990. Relationship between ovarian activity and energy status during the early postpartum period of high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:938-947. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78750-4
  148. Staufenbiel, R. 1992. Energie- und Fettstoffwechsel des Rindes. Untersuchungskonzept und Messung der Ruckenfettdicke. Mh. Vet. Med. 47:467-474.
  149. Staufenbiel, R., I. Lachmann, J. Bauer and B. Staufenbiel. 1993. Energie- und Fettstoffwechsel des Rindes - Beziehungen der Ruckenfettdicke zur Energieaufnahme und zur Energiebilanz. Mh. Vet. Med. 48:58-66.
  150. Staufenbiel, R. 1997. Konditionsbeurteilung von Milchkuhen mit Hilfe der sonographischen Ruckenfettdickemessung. Prakt. Tierarzt coll. Vet. XXVII:87-92.
  151. Staufenbiel, R., U. Schroder, C.-C. Gelfert and L. Panicke. 2003. Korperkondition und Stoffwechselstabilitat als Grundlage fur eine hohe Milchleistung bei ungestorter Fruchtbarkeit und allgemeiner Gesundheit von Milchkuhen. Arch. Tierz., Dummersdorf 46:513-526.
  152. Stevenson, J. S. and J. H. Britt. 1979. Relationships among luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, glucocorticoids, milk yield, body weight and postpartum ovarian activity in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 48:570-577.
  153. Tamminga, S., P. A. Luteijn and R. G. M. Meijer. 1997. Changes in composition and energy content of liveweight loss in dairy cows with time after parturition. Livest. Prod. Sci. 52:31-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00115-2
  154. Treacher, R. J., I. M. Reid and C. J. Roberts. 1986. Effect of body condition at calving on the health and performance of dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 43:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100018286
  155. Urdl, M., L. Gruber, A. Schauer, G. Maierhofer, J. Hausler and A. Steinwidder. 2007. Einfluss der Energieversorgung vor und nach der Abkalbung auf die Stoffwechselsituation von Milchkuhen - Teilbereich Produktionsdaten. In: Forum angewandte Forschung in der Rinder- und Schweinefutterung:10-13.
  156. Van den Top, A. M., T. Wensing, G. H. Wentink, A. T. Van't Klooster and A. C. Beynen. 1995. Time trends of plasma lipids and hepatic triacylglycerol synthesizing enzymes during postpartum fatty liver development in dairy cows with unlimited access to feed during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2208-2220. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76848-5
  157. Vandehaar, M. J., G. Yousif, B. K. Sharma, T. H. Herdt, R. S. Emery, M. S. Allen and J. S. Liesman. 1999. Effect of energy and protein density of prepartum diets on fat and protein metabolism of dairy cattle in the periparturient period. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1282-1295. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75351-8
  158. Veerkamp, R. F., G. Simm and J. D. Holdam. 1994. Effects of interaction between genotype and feeding system on milk production, feed intake, efficiency and body mobilization in dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:229-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(94)90202-X
  159. Villa-Godoy, A., T. L. Hughes, R. S. Emery, L. T. Chapin and R. L. Fogwell. 1988. Association between energy balance and luteal function in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1063-1072. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79653-8
  160. Waltner, S. S., J. P. McNamara and J. K. Hillers. 1993. Relationships of body condition score to production variables in high production Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3410-3419. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77679-1
  161. Watters, R. D., J. N. Guenther, A. E. Brickner, R. R. Rastani, P. M. Crump, P. W. Clark and R. R. Grummer. 2008. Effects of dry period length on milk production and health of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 91:2595-2603. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0615
  162. Whitaker, D. A., J. M. Kelly and E. J. Smith. 1983. Subclinical ketosis and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in dairy cattle. Br. Vet. J. 139:462-463.
  163. Whitmore, H. L., W. J. Tyler and L. E. Casida. 1974. Effects of early postpartum breeding in dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 38:339-346.
  164. Wildman, E. E., G. M. Jones, P. E. Wagner, R. L. Boman, H. F. Troutt and T. N. Lesch. 1982. A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production characteristics. J. Dairy Sci. 65:495-501. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82223-6
  165. Zanartu, D., C. E. Polan, L. E. Ferreri and M. L. McGilliard. 1983. Effect of stage of lactation and varying available energy intake on milk production, milk composition, and subsequent tissue enzymic activity. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1644-1652. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(83)81987-0

피인용 문헌

  1. 1. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum vol.9, pp.6, 2014, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10134
  2. 2. Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving vol.99, pp.1, 2014, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10134
  3. 3. Nutrient use efficiency in peri-urban dairy cattle and sheep holdings in southern Mali vol.102, pp.1, 2015, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10134
  4. 4. Dynamic model of milk production responses to grass-based diet variations during grazing and indoor housing vol.153, pp.04, 2015, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10134
  5. 5. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows vol.100, pp.7, 2017, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.10134