Effects of Supplementation of Probiotics on the Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Faecal Microflora in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Giang, Hoang Huong (Department of Livestock Production, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) ;
  • Viet, Tran Quoc (Department of Animal Nutrition, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Ogle, Brian (Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Lindberg, Jan Erik (Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
  • 투고 : 2010.06.30
  • 심사 : 2010.08.18
  • 발행 : 2011.05.01


Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus, Saccharomyces and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on performance and nutrient digestibility in grower and finisher pigs. In Exp. 1, 80 pigs (32 females and 48 males), $28.7{\pm}0.9\;kg$ body weight (BW), were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups balanced for sex and weight (5 pigs per pen, 4 pens per treatment). They were fed one of four diets: a basal grower (20-50 kg BW) and finisher (>50 kg BW) diet without any addition of probiotic or antibiotic (diet C), the basal diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis H4 (diet B), diet B supplemented with Saccharomyces boulardi Sb (diet BS) and diet BS supplemented with a LAB complex (diet BSL). The LAB complex consisted of Enterococcus faecium 6H2, Lactobacillus acidophilus C3, Pediococcus pentosaceus D7, and Lactobacillus fermentum NC1. In Exp. 2, 16 male pigs, $29.2{\pm}0.8\;kg$ BW, were kept in individual pens and divided into 4 groups (4 pigs in each group). All 4 groups were given exactly the same growing-period diets (diet C, B, BS and BSL) as in Exp 1. The total faeces and urine were collected during 5 days (day 20-24) to determine nitrogen retention and total tract digestibility. In the growing period, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by diet B and BS (p>0.05), but ADG increased (+5.9%) (p<0.05) and FCR improved (+5.9%) (p<0.05) on diet BSL compared with the control, although ADFI was not different (p>0.05). Digestibility of crude protein and organic matter was higher (p<0.05) in diet BSL and digestibility of crude fibre was higher (p<0.05) in diet BS and BSL than in diet C. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet (p>0.05). The faecal LAB counts were increased in grower pigs fed diet BSL (p<0.05) and faecal E. coli counts were decreased in pigs fed diets BS and BSL (p<0.05). In the finishing period, no effects of diet were found in ADFI, ADG, FCR, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention (p>0.05). Faecal LAB and E. coli counts in the finisher pigs were not affected by diet (p>0.05). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a mixture of bacteria and yeast has the potential to be used as a probiotic dietary supplement in grower pigs.


Growth Performance;Digestibility;Bacillus;Saccharomyces;Lactic Acid Bacteria;Pigs


  1. Amino Quant (Operators Handbook). HP No 01090 90025, 1990. Printed in the federal Republic of Germany. Hewlett Packard Company.
  2. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn. Vol. 1. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC. pp. 69-90.
  3. Apgar, G. A., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann and C. M. Wood. 1993. The effect of feeding various levels of Bifidobacterium globosum A on the performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and immunity of weanling pigs and on the performance and carcass measurements of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2173-2179.
  4. Baird, D. 1977. Probiotics help boost feed efficiency. Feedstuffs 49:11-12.
  5. Bjorksten, B., E. Sepp, K. Julge, T. Voor and M. Mikelsaar. 2001. Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108:516-520.
  6. Bontempo, V., A. Di Giancamillo, G. Savoini, V. Dell'Orto and C. Domeneghini. 2006. Live yeast dietary supplementation acts upon intestinal morpho-functional aspects and growth in weanling piglets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 129:224-236.
  7. Breves, G., C. Walter, M. Burmester and B. Schroder. 2000. In vitro studies on the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on nutrient transport in pig jejunum. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 84:9-20.
  8. Buts, J. P., P. Bernasconi, J. P. Vaerman and C. Dive. 1990. Stimulation of secretory IgA and secretory component of immunoglobulins in small intestine of rats treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Dig. Dis. Sci. 35:251-256.
  9. Chen, Y. J., K. S. Son, B. J. Min, J. H. Cho, O. S. Kwon and I. H. Kim. 2005. Effects of dietary probiotic on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1464-1468.
  10. Chen, Y. J., B. J. Min, J. H. Cho, O. S. Kwon, K. S. Son, I. H. Kim and S. J. Kim. 2006. Effects of dietary Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and faecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:406-411.
  11. Chesson, A. 1994. Probiotics and other intestinal mediators. In: Principles of Pig Science (Ed. D. J. A. Cole, J. Wiseman and M. A. Varley). Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, UK. pp. 197-214.
  12. Collington, G. K., D. S. Parker and D. G. Armstrong. 1990. The influence of inclusion of either an antibiotic or a probiotic in the diet on the development of digestive enzyme activity in the pig. Br. J. Nutr. 64:59-70.
  13. Corthier, G., F. Dubos and R. Ducluzeau. 1986. Prevention of Clostridium difficile induced mortality in gnotobiotic mice by Saccharomyces boulardii. Can. J. Microbiol. 32:894-896.
  14. Czerucka, D. and P. Rampal. 2002. Experimental effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on diarrheal pathogens. Microbes Infect. 4:733-739.
  15. Davis, M. E., T. Parrott, D. C. Brown, B. Z. de Rodas, Z. B. Johnson, C. V. Maxwell and T. Rehberger. 2008. Effect of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial feed supplement on growth performance and pen cleaning characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1459-1467.
  16. Giang, H. H., T. Q. Viet, B. Ogle and J. E. Lindberg. 2010a. Growth performance, digestibility, gut environment and health status in weaned piglets fed a diet supplemented with potentially probiotic complexes of lactic acid bacteria. Livest. Sci. 129: 95-103.
  17. Harper, A. F., E. T. Kornegay, K. L. Bryant and H. R. Thomas. 1983. Efficacy of virginiamycin and a commercially-available Lactobacillus probiotic in swine diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 8:69-76.
  18. Hong, H. A., L. H. Duc and S. M. Cutting. 2005. The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29:813-835.
  19. Hentges, D. 1992. Gut flora and disease resistance. In: Probiotics: The Scientific Basis (Ed. R. Fuller). Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 87-110.
  20. Huang, C., S. Qiao, D. Li, X. Piao and J. Ren. 2004. Effects of lactobacilli on the performance, diarrhea incidence, VFA concentration and gastrointestinal microbial flora of weaning pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:401-409.
  21. Hungate, R. E. 1984. Microbes of nutritional importance in the alimentary tract. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 43:1-11.
  22. Jensen, B. B. 1998. The impact of feed additives on the microbial ecology of the gut in young pigs. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 7:45-64.
  23. Kero, J., M. Gissler, M. M. Gronlund, P. Kero, P. Koskinen, E. Hemminki and E. Isolauri. 2002. Mode of delivery and asthma - is there a connection? Pediatr. Res. 52:6-11.
  24. Kornegay, E. T. and C. R. Risley. 1996. Nutrient digestibilities of a corn-soybean meal diet as influenced by Bacillus products fed to finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 74:799-805.
  25. Lessard, M. and G. J. Brisson. 1987. Effect of a Lactobacillus fermentation product on growth, immune response and fecal enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:509-516.
  26. Nousiainen, J. and J. Setala. 1998. Lactic acid bacteria as animal probiotics. In: Lactic acid bacteria. Microbiology and Functional Aspects (Ed. S. Salminen and A. von Wright). Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp. 437-473.
  27. NRC. 1998. Nutrients requirements of pigs. 10th Edition. National Research Council, Academy Press. Washington, DC.
  28. Pollmann, D. S., D. M. Danielson and E. R. Peo Jr. 1980. Effects of microbial feed additives on performance of starter and growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 51:577-581.
  29. Pollman, D. S. 1986. Probiotics in pig diets. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Haresign and D. J. A. Cole). Butterworth, London. pp. 193-205.
  30. Priest, F. G. 1977. Extracellular enzyme synthesis in the genus Bacillus. Bacteriol. Rev. 41:711-753.
  31. Rodrigues, A. C. P., R. M. Nardi, E. A. Bambirra, E. C. Vieira and J. R. Nicoli. 1996. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against experimental oral infection with Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri in conventional and gnotobiotic mice. J. Appl. Microbiol. 81:251-256.
  32. Scheuermann, S. E. 1993. Effect of the probiotic $Paciflor^{\circledR}$ (CIP 5832) on energy and protein metabolism in growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 41:181-189.
  33. Timmerman, H. M., C. J. M. Koning, L. Mulder, F. M. Rombouts and A. C. Beynen. 2004. Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics. A comparison of functionality and efficacy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 96:219-233.
  34. Tortuero, F., J. Rioperez, E. Fernandez and M. L. Rodriguez. 1995. Response of piglets to oral administration of lactic acid bacteria. J. Food Prot. 58:1369-1374.
  35. Vanbelle, M. 2001. Current status and future perspectives in E.U. for antibiotics, probiotics, enzymes and organic acids in animal nutrition. In: Gut Environment of Pigs (Ed. A. Piva, K. E. Bach Knudsen and J. E. Lindberg). Nottingham University Press. pp. 231-256.
  36. Veum, T. L. and G. L. Bowman. 1973. Saccharomyces cervisiae yeast culture in diets for mechanically-fed neonatal piglets and early growing self-fed pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 37:67-71.
  37. Viet, T. Q., D. V. Hop, B. T. T. Huyen and N. H. Ha. 2006. Isolation, screening and evaluation of beneficial bacteria from different sources in order to formulate different probiotic complexes for animals. Proceedings of Animal Science Workshop, National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi, Vietnam. pp. 264-277.
  38. Viet, T. Q., B. T. T. Huyen, D. V. Hop and V. T Lam. 2009. Isolation, screening and evaluation of the probiotic properties of some beneficial bacteria in order to formulate probiotic complexes for animals. Vietnamese J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 16:35-46.
  39. Wang, Y., J. H. Cho, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, Y. Huang, H. J. Kim and I. H. Kim. 2009. The effect of probiotic BioPlus $2B^{\circledR}$ on growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibility and slurry noxious gas emission in growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 120:35-42.
  40. Weichselbaum, E. 2009. Probiotics and health: a review of the evidence. Nutrition Bulletin 34:340-373.
  41. Zani, J. L., F. W. D. Cruz, F. D. Santos and C. Gil-Turnes. 1998. Effect of probiotic CenBiot on the control of diarrhoea and feed efficiency in pigs. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84:68-71.

피인용 문헌

  1. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88 vol.93, pp.1, 2013,
  2. Effects of dietary probiotics on growth performance, faecal microbiota and serum profiles in weaned piglets vol.54, pp.5, 2014,
  3. B301 on the growth performance, immune parameters and caecum microflora of broiler chickens vol.100, pp.3, 2015,
  4. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs vol.29, pp.5, 2015,
  5. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria as a Probiotic in Swine Diets vol.4, pp.1, 2015,
  6. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits vol.45, pp.3, 2016,
  7. Promotion of Early Gut Colonization by Probiotic Intervention on Microbiota Diversity in Pregnant Sows vol.8, pp.1664-302X, 2017,
  8. Inclusion of dietary multi-species probiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality traits, faecal microbiota and diarrhoea score in growing–finishing pigs pp.1828-051X, 2017,
  9. Effects of Compound Probiotics on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Immune Function of Broilers vol.997, pp.1662-8985, 2014,
  10. Effects of complex probiotic supplementation in growing pig diets with and without palm kernel expellers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbial shedding and noxious gas emission vol.89, pp.3, 2017,
  11. Effects of Dietary Bacillus subtilis Supplementation as Probiotics on Growth Performance and Nutrients Digestibility in Fattening Pigs vol.17, pp.12, 2018,
  12. Effect of Postpartum Endocrine Function, Metabolism, and Mastitis on Fertility in High-Yielding Cows – A Review vol.18, pp.2, 2018,
  13. complex on growth performance and faecal noxious gas emissions in growing-finishing pigs pp.00225142, 2018,
  14. Application of Complex Probiotics in Swine Nutrition – A Review vol.18, pp.2, 2018,
  15. Combined Use of C. butyricum Sx-01 and L. salivarius C-1-3 Improves Intestinal Health and Reduces the Amount of Lipids in Serum via Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Mice vol.10, pp.7, 2018,
  16. Effect of antibiotics and synbiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and faecal microbial shedding in growing-finishing pigs vol.46, pp.1, 2018,