Expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ in Splenic Dendritic Cells and Their Serum Levels in Mouse Sparganosis

  • Yang, Hyun-Jong (Department of Parasitology and Ewha Global Challenge, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University)
  • Received : 2011.03.09
  • Accepted : 2011.05.10
  • Published : 2011.06.30


Sparganosis is a tissue invading helminthiasis infecting intermediate hosts, including humans. Strong immune responses are expected to occur in early phases of infection. Thus, we investigated cytokine expressions in splenic dendritic cells and in sera after experimental infection of mice. In splenic dendritic cells, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ expression peaked at week 1 and week 3 post -infection (PI), respectively, and also early phase (week 2 PI) depressed cytokine expression was noticed. Serum IL-$1{\beta}$ concentration increased significantly at week 2 PI and peaked at week 6 PI, and that of TNF-${\alpha}$ peaked at week 6 PI. These results showed that pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$, are chronologically regulated in mouse sparganosis.



Supported by : National Institute of Health


  1. Cho SY, Bae J, Seo BS, Lee SH. Some aspects of human sparganosis. Korean J Parasitol 1975; 13: 60-77.
  2. Banchereau J, Briere F, Caux C, Davoust J, Lebecque S, Liu Y, Pulendran B, Palucka K. Immunobiology of dendritic cells. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18: 767-811.
  3. Fearon DT, Locksley RM. The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 1996; 272: 50-53.
  4. Medzhitov R, Janeway CA Jr. Innate immunity: the virtues of a nonclonal system of recognition. Cell 1997; 91: 295-298.
  5. Tracey KJ, Cerami A. Tumor necrosis factor, other cytokines and disease. Ann Rev Cell Biol 1993; 9: 317-343.
  6. Tincani A, Andreoli L, Bazzani C, Bosiso D, Sozzani S. Inflammatory molecules: a target for treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases. Autoimmun Rev 2007; 7: 1-7.
  7. Dinarello CA. Role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during inflammation: experimental and clinical findings. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1997; 11: 91-103.
  8. Ulevitch RJ, Tobias PS. Recognition of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin by the innate immune system. Curr Opin Immunol 1999; 11: 19-22.
  9. Rao UR, Vickery AC, Kwa BH, Nayar JK. Regulatory cytokines in the lymphatic pathology of athymic mice infected with Brugia malayi. Int J Parasitol 1996; 26: 561-565.
  10. Biet F, Locht C, Kremer L. Immunoregulatory functions of interleukin 18 and its role in defense against bacterial pathogens. J Mol Med 2002; 80: 147-162.
  11. Eger A, Kirch A, Manfras B, Kern P, Schulz-Key H, Soboslay PT. Pro-inflammatory (IL-$1\beta$, IL-18) cytokines and IL-8 chemokine release by PBMC in response to Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode vesicles. Parasite Immunol 2003; 25: 103-105.
  12. Perona-Wright G, Jenkins SJ, MacDonald AS. Dendritic cell activation and function in response to Schistosoma mansoni. Int J Parasitol 2006; 36: 711-721.
  13. Carvalho L, Sun J, Kane C, Marshall F, Krawczyk C, Pearce EJ. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: mechanisms underlying helminth modulation of dendritic cell function. Immunology 2009; 126: 28-34.