DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Body Height Effect on Brain Volumes in Youth Decreases in Old Age in Koreans

  • Koh, In-Song (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University)
  • Received : 2011.08.12
  • Accepted : 2011.08.12
  • Published : 2011.09.30

Abstract

The MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) volumetric analysis of the brain was performed in 59 healthy elderly Koreans (aged 62-76 years; 34 male, 25 female) to investigate whether the previously reported significant correlations between body height and brain volumes in the young aged Koreans (20's) still exist in the old aged Koreans (60's and 70's). Unlike previously reported significant correlations in the young aged Koreans, neither the correlation between whole brain volume and body height in male nor the correlation between cerebellar volume and body height in female show any significance in the old aged Koreans. The significant correlation between body height and whole brain volume was still observed when both male and female data were combined (r=0.27, P<0.05), but the correlation coef-ficient and the level of significance markedly decreased from those of previously reported Korean youth data (r=0.67, P<0.01). Simple linear regression analysis shows decrease of explanatory power of height (measured in $r^2$) from 44% in the youth group to 7% in the old age group on the variance of whole brain volume. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that age and sex, rather than height, are major explanatory variables for whole brain volume in the old aged Koreans. The loss of correlations in the aged group is suspected to be mainly due to age related brain volume changes.

References

  1. Marshall, J. (1892). On the relation between the weight of the brain and its parts, and the stature and mass of the body in man. J Anat Physiol 26, 445-500.
  2. Pakkenberg, H. (1964). Brain weight of the Danes: forensic material. Acta Anatom 56, 297-307. https://doi.org/10.1159/000142510
  3. Passingham, R.E. (1979). Brain size and intelligence in man. Brain Behav Evol 16, 253-270. https://doi.org/10.1159/000121868
  4. Ho, K.C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J.V., and Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight. II. Adult brain weight in relation to body height, weight, and surface area. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104, 640-645.
  5. Jerison, H.J. (1979). The evolution of diversity in brain size. In: Hahn, M.E., Jensen, C., Dudek. B.C., editors. Development and evolution in brain size. New York: Academic Press. pp.29-57.
  6. Peters, M., Jancke, L., Staiger, J.F., Schlaug, G., Huang, Y., and Steinmetz, H. (1998). Unsolved problems in comparing brain sizes in Homo sapiens. Brain Cogn 37, 254-285. https://doi.org/10.1006/brcg.1998.0983
  7. Skullerud, K. (1985). Variations in the size of the human brain. Influence of age, sex, body length, body mass index, alcoholism, Alzheimer changes, and cerebral atherosclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 102, 1-94.
  8. Egan, V., Wickett, J.C., Vernon, P.A. (1995). Brain size and intelligence: erratum, addendum and correction. Pers Indiv Diff 19, 113-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(95)00043-6
  9. Wickett, J.C., Vernon, P.A., Lee, D.H. (1994). In vivo brain size, head perimeter, and intelligence in a sample of healthy adult females. Pers Indiv Diff 16, 831-838. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(94)90227-5
  10. Koh, I., Lee, M.S., Lee, N.J., Park, K.W., Kim, K.H., Kim, H., and Rhyu, I.J. (2005). Body size effect on brain volume in Korean youth. Neuroreport 16, 2029-2032. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200512190-00012
  11. Nopoulos, P., Flaum, M., O'Leary, D., and Andreasen, N.C. (2000). Sexual dimorphism in the human brain: evaluation of tis-sue volume, tissue composition and surface anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res 98, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4927(99)00044-X
  12. Witelson, S.F., Beresh, H., and Kigar, D.L. (2006). Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. Brain 129, 386-398. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh696
  13. Coffey, C.E. (1994). Anatomic imaging of the aging human brain: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In: Coffey, C.E., Cummings, J.L. (Eds.), Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry. American Psychiatric Press, Washington D. C., pp.159-194.
  14. Powers, R.E. (1994). Neurobiology of aging. In: Coffey, C.E., Cummings, J.L. (Eds.), Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry. American Psychiatric Press, Washington D.C., pp.35-69.
  15. Coffey, C.E., Lucke, J.F., Saxton, J.A., Ratcliff, G., Unitas, L.J., Billig, B., and Bryan, R.N. (1998). Sex differences in brain aging: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Neurol 55, 169-179. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.55.2.169
  16. Lange, N., Giedd, J.N., Castellanos, F.X., Vaituzis, A.C., and Rapoport, J.L. (1997). Variability of human brain structure size: ages 4-20 years. Psychiatry Res 74, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4927(96)03054-5
  17. Lee, N.J., Park, I.S., Koh, I., Jung, T.W., Rhyu, I.J. (2009). No volume difference of medulla oblongata between young and old Korean people. Brain Res 1276, 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.04.027
  18. Walhovd, K.B., Fjell, A.M., Reinvang, I., Lundervold, A., Dale, A.M., Eilertsen, D.E., Quinn, B.T., Salat, D., Makris, N., and Fischl, B. (2005). Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiol Aging 26, 1261-1270; discussion 1275-1268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.05.020
  19. Gur, R.C., Mozley, P.D., Resnick, S.M., Gottlieb, G.L., Kohn, M., Zimmerman, R., Herman, G., Atlas, S., Grossman, R., Berretta, D., et al. (1991). Gender differences in age effect on brain atro-phy measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88, 2845-2849. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.7.2845
  20. Raz, N., Gunning, F.M., Head, D., Dupuis, J.H., McQuain, J., Briggs, S.D., Loken, W.J., Thornton, A.E., and Acker, J.D. (1997). Selective aging of the human cerebral cortex observed in vivo: differential vulnerability of the prefrontal gray matter. Cereb Cor-tex 7, 268-282. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/7.3.268
  21. Xu, J., Kobayashi, S., Yamaguchi, S., Iijima, K., Okada, K., and Yamashita, K. (2000). Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21, 112-118.
  22. Coffey, C.E., Wilkinson, W.E., Parashos, I.A., Soady, S.A., Sulli-van, R.J., Patterson, L.J., Figiel, G.S., Webb, M.C., Spritzer, C.E., and Djang, W.T. (1992). Quantitative cerebral anatomy of the aging human brain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology 42, 527-536. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.42.3.527
  23. Sullivan, E.V., Shear, P.K., Mathalon, D.H., Lim, K.O., Yesavage, J.A., Tinklenberg, J.R., and Pfefferbaum, A. (1993). Greater ab-normalities of brain cerebrospinal fluid volumes in younger than in older patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol 50, 359-373. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1993.00540040021009
  24. Condon, B., Grant, R., Hadley, D., and Lawrence, A. (1988). Brain and intracranial cavity volumes: in vivo determination by MRI. Acta Neurol Scand 78, 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1988.tb03674.x
  25. Brickman, A.M., Schupf, N., Manly, J.J., Luchsinger, J.A., An-drews, H., Tang, M.X., Reitz, C., Small, S.A., Mayeux, R., De-Carli, C., et al. (2008). Brain morphology in older African Ameri-cans, Caribbean Hispanics, and whites from northern Manhattan. Arch Neurol 65, 1053-1061. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.65.8.1053
  26. Klekamp, J., Riedel, A., Harper, C., and Kretschmann, H.J. (1987). A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Cauca-sian brains. J Anat 150, 191-210.
  27. Klekamp, J., Riedel, A., Harper, C., and Kretschmann, H.J. (1989). Morphometric study on the postnatal growth of non-cortical brain regions in Australian aborigines and Caucasians. Brain Res 485, 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(89)90668-9
  28. Gracey, M. (1973). Some paediatric problems of Australian Ab-origines. Paediatr Indones 13, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.14238/pi13.1.1973.1-10
  29. Ho, K.C., Roessmann, U., Hause, L., and Monroe, G. (1981). Newborn brain weight in relation to maturity, sex, and race. Ann Neurol 10, 243-246. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410100308
  30. Ho, K.C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J.V., and Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight. I. Adult brain weight in relation to sex, race, and age. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104, 635-639.
  31. Hutchinson, S., Lee, L.H., Gaab, N., and Schlaug, G. (2003). Cerebellar volume of musicians. Cereb Cortex 13, 943-949. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/13.9.943
  32. Park, I.S., Han, J.W., Lee, K.J., Lee, N.J., Lee, W.T., Park, K.A., and Rhyu, I.J. (2006). Evaluation of morphological plasticity in the cerebella of basketball players with MRI. J Korean Med Sci 21, 342-346. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2006.21.2.342