Position and Orientation Estimation of a Maneticalluy Guided-Articulated Vehicle

자기적 안내제어시스템을 이용하는 굴절차량의 위치 및 방위각 추정

  • Received : 2011.08.14
  • Accepted : 2011.09.22
  • Published : 2011.10.01


For automated guidance control of a magnetically guided-all wheel steered vehicle, it is necessary to have information about position and orientation of the vehicle, and deviations from the reference path in real time. The magnet reference system considered here consists of three magnetic sensors mounted on the vehicle and magnetic markers, which are non-equidistantly buried in the road. This paper presents an observer to estimate such position and orientation at the center of gravity of the vehicle. This algorithm is based on the simple kinematic model of vehicle and uses the data of wheel velocity, steering angle, and the discrete measurements of marker positions. Since this algorithm requires the exact values of initial states, we have also proposed an algorithm of determining the initial position and orientation from the 16 successive magnet pole data, which are given by the magnetic measurement system(MMS). The proposed algorithm is capable of continuing to estimate for the case that the magnetic sensor fail to measure up to three successive magnets. It is shown through experimental data that the proposed algorithm works well within permissible error range.


  1. J. Du and M. Barth, "Lane-level positioning for in-vehicle navigation and automated vehicle location (AVL) systems," in Proc. of IEEE Int. Veh. Symp., pp. 522-526, June 2006.
  2. H. G. Xu et. al. 3, "Extended Kalman Filter Based Magnetic Guidance for Intelligent Vehicles,", Intelligent Vehicles Symposium 2006, pp. 169-175, Tokyo, Japan, June 2006
  3. Yunchun Yang, Jay A. Farrell, "Magnetometer and Differential Carrier Phase GPS-Aided INS for Advanced Vehicle Control," IEEE Trans. On Robotics and Automation, vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 269-283, April 2003.
  4. Jean Laneurit, Roland Chapuis, Frederic Chausse, "Accurate Vehicle Positioning on a Numerical Map," International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15-31, March 2005.
  5. He Bo, "Precise navigation for a 4WS mobile robot", Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2006 7(2), pp185-193,China,2006
  6. Antonio Surrecio, Urbano Nunes, Rui Araujo, "Fusion of Odometry with Magnetic Sensors Using Kalman Filters and Augmented System Models fo Mobile Robot Navigation," IEEE ISIE 2005, pp. 1551-1556, June 2005.
  7. L. Conde Bento, Urbano Nunes, Fernando Moita, Antonio Surrecio, "Sensor Fusion for Precise Autonomous Vehicle Navigation in Outdoor Semi-structured Envirnments," IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp 245-250, September 2005.
  8. Urbano Nunes, L. Conde Bento, "Data Fusion and path-following controllers comparison for autonomous vehicles," Nonlinear Dyn, Vol. 49, pp. 445-462, Jan. 2007.
  9. Jay Farrell, Matthew Barth, "Integration of GPS/INS and Magnetic Markers for Advanced Vehicle Control," California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2002-32, October 2002.
  10. S. Saraf, M. Tomizuka, "Slip angle estimation for vehicles on automated highway," Proceedings of the 1997 American Control Conference, pp. 1-6, 1997.
  11. Pushkar Hingwe, M. Tomizuka, "Lateral Control of Commuter Buses," California PATH working paper UCB-ITS-PWP-95-9, July 1995.
  12. Kyong-Han Yun, Young-Chol Kim, Kyung-Deuk Min, Yeun-Sub Byun, "Lateral Dynamic Model of an All-Wheel Steered Articulated Vehicle for Guidance Control,", Trans. KIEE, Vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 1229-1238, JUN, 2011.
  13. Rajesh Rajamani, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, Springer, 2006.
  14. Y. C. Kim et al. 4, "Steering Control for Lateral Guidance of an all Wheel Steered Vehicle", Proc. of ICCAS 2008, pp. 24-29, 2008.