Development of an Integrated General Model (IGM) System for Comparison of Genetic Gains from Different Bull Selection Strategies for Korean Brown Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Lee, Jeong-Soo (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Hee-Bal (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Si-Dong (Lab. of Animal Genetic Evaluation, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • Received : 2010.05.17
  • Accepted : 2010.11.25
  • Published : 2011.11.01


To advance the effectiveness of the current Hanwoo improvement system, we developed a general simulation that compared a series of breeding schemes under realistic user circumstances. We call this system the Integrated General Model (IGM) and it allows users to control the breeding schemes and selection methods by manipulating the input parameters. The Current Hanwoo Performance and Progeny Test (CHPPT) scheme was simulated with a Modified Hanwoo Performance and Progeny Test (MHPPT) scheme using a Hanwoo Breeding Farm cow population of the Livestock Improvement Main Center (LOMC) of the National Agricultural Cooperatives Federation (NACF). To compare the two schemes, a new method, the Simple Hanwoo Performance Test (SHPT), which uses ultrasound technology for measuring the carcass traits of live animals, was developed. These three models, including the CHPPT, incorporated three types of selection criteria: phenotype (PH), true breeding value (TBV), and estimated breeding value (EBV). The simulation was scheduled to mimic an actual Hanwoo breeding program; thus, the simulation was run to include the years 1983-2020 for each breeding method and was replicated 10 times. The parameters for simulation were derived from the literature. Approximately 642,000 animals were simulated per replication for the CHPPT scheme; 129,000 animals were simulated for the MHPPT scheme and 112,000 animals for the SHPT scheme. Throughout the 38-year simulation, all estimated parameters of each simulated population, regardless of population size, showed results similar to the input parameters. The deviations between input and output values for the parameters in the large populations were statistically acceptable. In this study, we integrated three simulated models, including the CHPPT, in an attempt to achieve the greatest genetic gains within major economic traits including body weight at 12 months of age (BW12), body weight at 24 months of age (BW24), average daily gain from 6 to 12 months (ADG), carcass weight (CWT), carcass longissimus muscle area (CLMA), carcass marbling score (CMS), ultrasound scanned longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and ultrasound scanned marbling score (UMS).


Breeding Scheme;Hanwoo;Integrated General Simulation Model;Simulation


  1. Azzam, S. M., A. M. Azzam, M. K. Nielsen and J. E. Kinder. 1990. Markov chains as a shortcut method to estimate age distributions in herds of beef cattle under different culling strategies. J. Anim. Sci. 68:5-14.
  2. Bichard, Maurice, A. H. R. Pease, P. H. Swales and K. Ozkuruk. 1973. Selection in a population with overlapping generations. J. Anim. Prod. 17:215-227.
  3. Choi, T. J. 2006. A study on estimation of growth curve and correlation between body weight, measurements and carcass traits in Hanwoo (Bos taurus Coreanae). M.S. Thesis, Chonbuk National University.
  4. Choi, Tejeong, Sidong Kim, Agapita J. Salces and Dong Hoon Baik. 2006. Genetic parameter estimation on the growth and carcass traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (in review)
  5. Falconer, D. S. and T. F. C. Mackay. 1996. Introduction to quantitative genetics. Fourth edition, Longmann & Co, London.
  6. Ju, J. C. 2001. A simulation study for breeding scheme of Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Ph. D. dissertation. Chungbuk National University.
  7. Ju, J. C. and N. S. Kim. 2002. Development of simulation model for breeding schemes of Hanwoo (Korean cattle). J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 44(5):507-518.
  8. Kim, S., B. H. Park, H. B. Yoon, K. H. Cho and A. Salces. 2006. Estimates of variance-covariances among carcass traits in Hanwoo. 12th AAAP congress 2006, C06-PP-069.pdf
  9. Koots, Kenneth R. and John P. Gibson. 1996. Realized sampling variances of estimates of genetic parameters and the difference between genetic and phenotypic correlations. Genetics 143:1409-1416.
  10. Lee, D. H. 2003. Monte Carlo simulations of selection responses for improving high meat qualities using real time ultrasound in Korean cattle. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 45(3):343-354.
  11. Lee, D. H. and J. K. Bertrand. 2001. Comparison of genetic parameter estimates for carcass traits according to modeling with REML and Gibbs Sampling. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 43(1):23-34.
  12. Lee, D. H., I. Misztal and J. K. Bertrand. 2001. Bayesian analysis of carcass traits using multivariate threshold animal models and Gibbs Sampling with missing records in Korean Cattle. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 43(1):9-22.
  13. Meuwissen, T. H. E. and Z. Luo. 1992. Computing inbreeding coefficients in large populations. Genet. Sel. Evol. 24:305.
  14. Park, B. H., S. H. Na, Y. I. Park, S. D. Kim, Y. H. Choy and Y. M. Cho. 1998. Estimation of heritability and genetic trend in growth traits of Hanwoo. Anim. Genet. Breed. 2(1):41-46.
  15. Park, C. J. 1999. Study on estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trend for growth and carcass traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Ph. D. dissertation. Seoul National University.
  16. Park, C. J. and Y. I. Park. 2002. Estimation of genetic correlations for the growth and carcass traits in Hanwoo. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 44(6):685-692.
  17. Roh, S. H., B. W. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. S. Min, H. B. Yoon, D. H. Lee, J. T. Jeon and J. G. Lee. 2004. Comparison between REML and Bayesian via Gibbs Sampling algorithm with a mixed Animal Model to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits in Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle). J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 46(5):719-728.
  18. SAS institute. 1990. SAS procedures guide, version 6, 3rd edition. NC, USA.
  19. Sul, D. S. and S. B. Chung. 1971. Study on the heritabilities, genetic correlations and early selection on body weight and body measurements of Korean Native Cattle. RDA J. Agric. Sci. 14:1-26.
  20. Tsuruta, S., I. Misztal and I. Stranden. 2001. Use of the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm as a generic solver for mixed-model equations in animal breeding applications. J. Anim. Sci. 79(5):1166-1172.
  21. Won, Y. S., C. J. Park, N. H. Park, N. S. Kim, J. B. Kim and G. J. Jeon. 2000. A study on optimum breeding scheme for Hanwoo. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 42(4):407-414.
  22. Yoon, H. B. 2001. Estimation of genetic parameters and breeding values for economic traits of Hanwoo bulls and steers. Ph. D. Dissertation. Seoul National University.
  23. Yoon, H. B., S. D. Kim, S. H. Na, U. M. Chang, H. K. Lee, G. J. Jeon and D. H. Lee. 2002. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Hanwoo steer. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor) 44(4):383-390.