- Volume 8 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Qualitative Cross-Cultural Study on the Expression and Perception of Digital Images: Focusing on Cultural Schema
Choi, Gi Woong;Kim, Solyung;Kim, Jihyun;Lee, Inseong;Kim, Jinwoo
- Received : 2012.07.25
- Accepted : 2012.09.21
- Published : 2012.12.28
In this paper, we conducted cross-cultural studies on digital images, which is an important element of the user interface. We brought in the schema theory to explain the cross-cultural difference in expressing and perceiving digital images. Participant-ethnography, in-depth interview, and card sorting were conducted to explore how expression and perception of images are influenced by schemas. Our results of qualitative studies indicate that there are differences in schemas between cultures depending on the topic of expression and perception. With these results, we suggest globalization and localization strategies for websites.
Cultural Schema;Localization;Digital Photographic Image;User Interface;Qualitative Study
- P. Russo and S. Boor. "How Fluent is Your Interface?: Designing for International Users," Proc. the 1993 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1993.
- J.H. Kim and K.P. Lee. "Cultural Difference and Mobile Phone Interface Design: Icon Recognition according to Level of Abstraction," Proc. the 7th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices & Services, 2005.
- A. Marcus and E.W. Gould, "Crosscurrents: Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User-Interface Design," Interactions, vol. 7, no. 4, 2000, pp. 32-46.
- B. Choi, I. Lee, J. Kim, and Y. Jeon. "A Qualitative Cross-National Study of Cultural Influences on Mobile Data Service Design," Proc. the 2005 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2005.
- Y. Kim, D. Sohn, and S.M. Choi, "Cultural Difference in Motivations for Using Social Network Sites: A Comparative Study of American and Korean College Students," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 1, 2011, pp. 365-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.08.015
- E. del Galdo, Internationalization and Translation: Some Guidelines for the Design of Human-Computer Interfaces, in Designing User Interfaces for International Use, Nielsen, J. (ed.), Elsevier, New York, 1990, pp. 1-10.
- U. Sekaran, "Methodological and Theoretical Issues and Advancements in Cross-Cultural Research," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 14, no. 2, 1983, pp. 61-73. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490519
- J.D. McCort and N.K. Malhotra, "Culture and Consumer Behavior: Toward an Understanding of Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior in International Marketing," Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 6, no. 2, 1993, pp. 91-127. https://doi.org/10.1300/J046v06n02_07
- J.Z. Sojka and P.S. Tansuhaj, "Cross-Cultural Consumer Research: A Twenty-Year Review," Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 22, no. 1, 1995, pp. 461-474.
- H.R. Markus, "Self-Schemata and Processing Information about the Self," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 35, no., 1977, pp. 63-78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
- H. Nishida, "A Cognitive Approach to Intercultural Communication Based on Schema Theory," International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 23, no. 5, 1999, pp. 753-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00019-X
- J. Campbell, The Improbable Machine: What the Upheavals in Artificial Intelligence Research Reveal about How the Mind Really Works, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1989.
- S.E. Taylor and J. Crocker, Schematic Bases of Social Information Processing, in Social Cognition, Higgins, E. T., Herman, C. P. and Zanna, M. P. (eds.), LEA, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, pp. 89-133.
- S.G. Harris, "Organizational Culture and Individual Sensemaking: A Schema-based Perspective," Organizational Science, vol. 5, no. 3, 1994, pp. 309-321. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.5.3.309
- J.C. Kuperman, "Using Cognitive Schema Theory in the Development of Public Relations Strategy: Exploring the Case of Firms and Financial Analysts Following Acquisition Announcements," Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 15, no. 2, 2003, pp. 117-150. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532754XJPRR1502_2
- S.T. Fiske and S.E. Taylor, Social Cognition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991.
- H.R. Markus and R.B. Zajonc, The Cognitive Perspective in Social Psychology, in The Handbook of Social Psychology, Lindzey, G. and Aronson, E. (eds.), Random House, New York, 1985, pp. 127-230.
- R. Nisbett and L. Ross, Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgement, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.
- F. Sharifian, "On Cultural Conceptualisations," Journal of Cognition and Culture, vol. 3, no. 3, 2003, pp. 187-207. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853703322336625
- M. Augoustinos and I. Walker, Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction, Sage, London, 1995.
- R. Shaw and J. Pittenger, Perceiving the Face of Change in Changing Faces: Implications for a Theory of Object Perception, in Perceiving, Acting and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology, Shaw, R. and Bransford, J. (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1977, pp. 103- 132.
- N. Cantor and W. Mischel, Prototypes in Person Perception, in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1979, pp. 3-51.
- L.W. Barsalow and D.R. Sewell, "Contrasting the Representation of Scripts and Categories," Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 24, no., 1985, pp. 646-665. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(85)90051-8
- M.T.H. Chi, Knowledge Development and Memory Performance, in Intelligence and Learning, Friedman, M. P., Das, J. P. and O'Conner, N. (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 1981, pp. 221-229.
- J.A. Hampton, "An Investigation of the Nature of Abstract Concepts," Memory & Cognition, vol. 9, no., 1982, pp. 149-156.
- E.H. Rosch and C.B. Mervis, "Family Resemblances: Studies in the Internal Structure of Categories," Cognitive Psychology, vol. 7, no., 1975, pp. 573-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(75)90024-9
- J.W. Pichert and R.C. Anderson, "Taking Different Perspectives on a Story," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 69, no., 1977, pp. 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1249
- D.A. Gioia and C.C. Manz, "Linking Cognition and Behavior: A Script Processing Interpretation of Vicarious Learning," Academy of Management Review, vol. 10, no., 1985, pp. 527-539.
- D.A. Gioia and P.P. Poole, "Script in Organizational Behavior," Academy of Management Review, vol. 9, no., 1984, pp. 449-459.
- R.G. Lord and M.C. Kernan, "Scripts as Determinants of Purposeful Behavior in Organizations," Academy of Management Review, vol. 12, no., 1987, pp. 265-277.
- J. Martin, Stories and Scripts in Organizational Settings, in Cognitive Social Psychology, Hastorf, A. and Isen, A. (eds.), Elsevier-North Holland, New York, 1982, pp.
- G. Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA, 1980.
- S.H. Schwartz, "A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work," Applied Psychology: An International Review, vol. 48, no. 1, 1999, pp. 23-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00047.x
- J. Cohen, "A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales," Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 20, no., 1960, pp. 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000104
- R.S. Wyer and T.K. Srull, Category Accessibility: Some Theoretical and Empirical Issues Concerning the Processing of Social Stimulus Information, in Social Cognition: The Ontario Symposium, Higgins, E. T., Herman, C. P. and Zanna, M. P. (eds.), Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, pp.
- D.J. Schneider and B.C. Blankmeyer, "Prototype Salience and Implicit Personality Theories," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol., no., 1983, pp.
- A.J. Jaccoud, D.A. Gioia, and H.P. Sims Jr. "Schema- Based Categorization in Personnel Decisions," Proc. Academy of Management, 1984.
- H.R. Markus, "Self-Schemata and Processing Information about the Self," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 35, no. 2, 1977, pp. 63-78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
- S. Fincher and J. Tenenberg, "Making Sense of Card Sorting Data," Expert Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, 2005, pp. 89-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0394.2005.00299.x
- M.G. Capra. "Factor Analysis of Card Sort Data: An Alternative to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting, 2005.
- L. Kaufman and P.J. Rousseeuw, Finding Groups in Data: An Introduction to Cluster Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1990.
Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF)