DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Impact of Tobacco on Glutathione S Transferase Gene Loci of Indian Ethnics

  • Senthilkumar, K.P. (Department of Zoology, The Madura College (Autonomous)) ;
  • Thirumurugan, Ramasamy (Department of Zoology, The Madura College (Autonomous))
  • Published : 2012.10.31

Abstract

Background: Tobacco contains agents which generate various potent DNA adducts that can cause gene mutations. Production of DNA adducts may be neutralized by glutathione S transferase (GST) along with other phase I and phase II enzyme systems. The existence of null type of GST among the population increases the susceptibility to various disorders and diseases. The present study focuses on the impact of high tobacco usage and possible null type mutation in GST loci. Methods: Genotypes of GST were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in unrelated 504 volunteers of high tobacco using natives of Gujarat. Allelic frequencies were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Studies-16 software. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated using Chi square test. Two sided Fisher's significance test was used to compare allelic frequencies of different populations. Results: The frequency of homozygous null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95% CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95% CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null allele frequency distribution in the Gujarat population was significantly deviating from HWE. GSTT1 null frequency of Gujaratians was significantly higher and different to all reported low tobacco using Indian ethnics, while GSTM1 was not differing significantly. Conclusion: Tobacco usage significantly influences the rate of mutation and frequency of GSTT1 and M1 null types among the habituates. The rate of mutation in GSTT1 loci was an undeviating response to the dose of tobacco usage among the population. This mutational impact of tobacco on GSTT1 postulates the possible gene - environment interaction and selection of null genotype among the subjects to prone them under susceptible status for various cancers and even worst to cure the population with GSTT1 dependent drugs.

Keywords

Tobacco usage;DNA adducts;GSTT1;GSTM1;mutation;susceptible;Indian Ethnics

References

  1. Amer MA, Ghattas MH, Abo-ElMatty DM, Abou-El-Ela SH (2011). Influence of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on type-2 diabetes mellitus risk. Genet Mol Res, 10, 3722-30. https://doi.org/10.4238/2011.October.31.14
  2. Anantharaman D, Chaubal PM, Kannan S, Bhisey RA, Mahimkumar MB (2007). Susceptibility to oral cancer by genetic polymorphisms at CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci among Indians: tobacco exposure as a risk modulator. Carcinogenesis, 28, 1455-62. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgm038
  3. Barreiro LB, Laval G, Quach H, Patin E, Murci QL (2008). Natural selection has driven population differentiation in modern humans. Nat Genet, 40, 340-5. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.78
  4. Boysen G, Hecht SS (2003). Analysis of DNA and protein adducts of benzo(a)pyrene in human tissues using structurespecific methods. Mutat Res, 543, 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5742(02)00068-6
  5. Buch S, Kotekar A, Kawle D, Bhisey R (2001). Polymorphisms at CYP and GST gene loci. Prevalence in the Indian population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 57, 553-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002280100337
  6. Chuang S, Agudo A, Ahrens W, et al (2011). Sequence variants and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium. Front Oncol, 10, 13.
  7. Evans AJ, Henner WD, Eilers KM (2004). Polymorphisms of GSTT1 and related genes in head and neck cancer risk. Head Neck, 26, 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.10342
  8. Gadgil M, Malhoera KC (1983). Adaptive significance of the Indian caste system: an ecological perspective. Ann Hum Biol, 10, 465-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014468300006671
  9. Hecht SS (1999). Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 1194-210. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.14.1194
  10. Hecht SS (2003). Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 3, 733-44. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1190
  11. Huang K, Sandler RS, Millikan RC, et al (2006). GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and risk of colon cancer: a population-based case-control study in North Carolina (United States). Cancer causes & control, 17, 385-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-005-0424-1
  12. Konwar R, Manchanda PK, Chaudhary P, et al (2010). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene variants and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a report in a North Indian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1067-72.
  13. Kriek E, Rojas M, Alexandrov K, Bartsch H (1998). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in humans: relevance as biomarkers for exposure and cancer risk. Mutat Res, 400, 215-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(98)00065-7
  14. Kumar V, Murthy AK, Suresh KP (2011). Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Status and the Risk of Laryngeal Cancer: a Meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2221-6.
  15. Lacko M, Ophuis MBO, Peters WHM, Manni JJ (2009). Genetic polymorphisms of smoking-related carcinogen detoxifying enzymes and head and neck cancer susceptibility. Anticancer Res, 29, 753-61.
  16. Lahiri DK, Nurnberger JI (1991). A rapid non-enzymatic method for the preparation of HMW DNA from blood for RFLP studies. Nucl Acids Res, 19, 5444. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/19.19.5444
  17. Lauren TR, Toupance B, Chaix R (2012). Non-random mate choice in humans: insights from a genome scan. Mol Ecol, 21, 587-96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05376.x
  18. Liu F, Li B, Wang WT, et al (2012). Interleukin-10-1082G/A polymorphism and acute liver graft rejection: A metaanalysis. World J Gastroenterol, 18, 847-54. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i8.847
  19. Lordelo GS, Vilela LM, Akimoto AK, et al (2012). Association between methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and glutathione S-transferase M1 gene polymorphisms and chronic myeloid leukemia in a Brazilian population. Genet Mol Res, 11, 1013-26. https://doi.org/10.4238/2012.April.19.6
  20. Mishra DK, Kumar A, Srivastava DSL, Mittal RD (2004). Allelic variation of GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes in North Indian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 5, 362-5.
  21. Mo Z, Gao Y, Cae Y, Gao F, Jian L (2009). An updating metaanalysis of the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer: A huge review. Prostate, 69, 662-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.20907
  22. Naveen AT, Adithan C, Padmaja N, et al (2004). Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null genotype distribution in South Indians. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 60, 403-6.
  23. Nordfors L, Luttropp K, Carrero JJ, et al (2012). Genetic studies in chronic kidney disease: basic concepts. J Nephrol, 25, 141-9. https://doi.org/10.5301/jn.5000145
  24. Phillips DH (2002). Smoking-related DNA and protein adducts in human tissues. Carcinogenesis, 23, 1979-2004. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.12.1979
  25. Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L (2003). Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob control, 10, 12.4.e4.
  26. Rodriguez S, Gaunt TR, Day INM (2009). Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Testing of Biological Ascertainment for Mendelian Randomization Studies. Am J Epidemiol, 10, kwn359.
  27. Roy B, Dey B, Chakraborty M, Majumder PP (1998). Frequency of homozygous null mutation at the glutathione-s-transferase M1 locus in some populations of Orissa, India. Anthropol Anz, 56, 43-7.
  28. Sam SS, Thomas V, Reddy KS, Surianarayanan G, Chandrasekaran A (2009). Gene-environment interactions associated with CYP1A1 MspI and GST polymorphisms and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in an Indian population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 10, 738-46.
  29. Singh A, Kohli JS (2012). Effect of Pollution on common man in India: A legal perspective. Advances in Life Sci and Technology, 4, 35-41.
  30. Tang D, Phillips DH, Stampfer M (2001). Association between Carcinogen-DNA Adducts in White Blood Cells and Lung cancer risk in the physicians health study. Cancer Res, 61, 6708-12.
  31. Vetriselvi V, Vijayalakshmi K, Paul SFD, Venkatachalam P (2006). Genetic variation of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes in a South Indian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 325-8.
  32. Xu LX, Yang SL, Lin RY, et al (2012). Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese pony breeds using microsatellite markers. Genet Mol Res, 11, 2629-40 https://doi.org/10.4238/2012.June.25.4
  33. Zhuo X, Cai L, Xiang Z, Li Q, Zhang X (2009). GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal cancer risk: an evidence-based meta-analysis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 10, 28-46.

Cited by

  1. Risk modulation of GSTM1–GSTT1 interactions to head and neck cancer in tobacco users vol.41, pp.9, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3433-x
  2. Molecular Links between Alcohol and Tobacco Induced DNA Damage, Gene Polymorphisms and Patho-physiological Consequences: A Systematic Review of Hepatic Carcinogenesis vol.16, pp.12, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.12.4803