Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Effects during Makgeolli Fermentation by Purple Sweet Potato-rice Nuruk

자색고구마-쌀누룩으로 제조된 막걸리 발효 중 품질 특성과 항산화 효과

  • Cho, Hyeon Kook (Farming Corporation OrumJooga Winery) ;
  • Lee, Ju Young (Farming Corporation OrumJooga Winery) ;
  • Seo, Weon Taek (Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, Myung Kyu (Department of Mechanicla Engineering, Gyeonam National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Cho, Kye Man (Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology)
  • 조현국 (영농조합법인 오름주가) ;
  • 이주영 (영농조합법인 오름주가) ;
  • 서원택 (경남과학기술대학교 식품과학부) ;
  • 김명규 (경남기술과학대학교 기계공학과) ;
  • 조계만 (경남과학기술대학교 식품과학부)
  • Received : 2012.04.28
  • Accepted : 2012.08.17
  • Published : 2012.12.31


Makgeolli is the oldest Korean traditional wine made from rice, and contains 6-8% alcohol. Also, nuruk is traditionally prepared by exposing moistened ground wheat or rice to the air, and there contained airborne microorganism. In this study, purple sweet potato (PSP) was used as a raw material in the rice nuruk- and makgeolli-making processes. PSP rice nuruk (RN) was made with rice and 0-10% (w/w) PSP, and the characteristics of makgeolli were studied during fermentation. The pH during fermentation decreased from 4.27 (0% PSP-RN), 4.59 (2.5%), 4.50 (5.0%), 4.46 (7.5%), and 4.43 (10.0%) of initial fermentation day to 4.12, 3.82, 3.67, 3.71, and 3.66, respectively, at day 7. The sugar contents increased from $0.4^{\circ}Bx$ of the initial day to $8.0-8.4^{\circ}Bx$, and the levels of alcohol increased to 13.0% (0% PSP-RN), 13.2% (2.5%), 12.8% (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) by day 7, respectively. In addition, the contents of soluble anthocyanins and phenolics increased from 0.001-0.121 and 0.2-0.27 g/L on the initial fermentation day to 0.002-0.166 and 1.65-1.87 g/L, corresponding to increases in levels of antioxidant activities of 20-50%, respectively.


makgeolli;nuruk;alcohol fermentation;purple sweet potato;antioxidant activity


Supported by : 지식경제부


  1. Yang HS, Hwang SJ, Lee SH, Eun JB. Fermentation characteristics and sensory characteristics of makgeolli with dired citron (Citrus junos SIEB ex TANAKA) peel. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 603-610 (2011)
  2. Seo WT, Cho HK, Lee JY, Kim B, Cho KM. Quality characteristics of wheat-rice makgeolli by making of rice nuruk prepared by Rhizopus oryzae CCS01. Korean J. Microbiol. 48: 147-155 (2012)
  3. Lee JW, Shim JY. Quality characteristics of makgeolli during freezing storage. Food Eng. Prog. 14: 328-334 (2010)
  4. Woo SM, Shin JS, Seong JH, Yeo SH, Choi JH, Kim TY, Jeong YJ. Quality characteristics of brown rice takju by different nuruks. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39: 301-307 (2010)
  5. So, MH, Lee YS. Effects of culture conditions of Rhizopus sp. ZB9 on the production of saccharifying amylase during the preparation of rice koji. Korean J. Food Nutr. 22: 644-649 (2009)
  6. Han EH, Lee TS, Noh BS, Lee DS. Volatile flavor components in mash of takju prepared by suing different nuruks. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29: 563-570 (1997)
  7. Lee TS, Han EH. Volatile flavor components in mash of takju prepared by using Aspergillus oryzae nuruks. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33: 366-372 (2001)
  8. Lee GH. The properties and new technologies of Korean medicinal wine and takju. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 7: 4036-4046 (1994)
  9. Kim GM, Jung WJ, Shin JH, Kang MJ, Sung NJ. Preparation and quality characteristics of makgeolli made with black garlic extract and sulgidduk. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 759-766 (2011)
  10. Wang SJ, Lee HJ, Cho JY, Park KH, Moon JH. Isolation and identification of antioxidants from makgeolli. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 14-20 (2012)
  11. Min JH, Baek SY, Lee JS, Kim HK. Changes of yeasts and bacterial flora during the storage of Korean traditional makgeolli. Korean J. Mycol. 39: 151-153 (2011)
  12. Fan G, Han Y, Gu Z, Gu F. Composition and colour stability of anthocyanins extracted from fermented purple sweet potato culture. Food Chem. 41: 1412-1416 (2008)
  13. Kim SJ, Rhim JW, Lee LS, Lee JS. Extraction and characteristics of purple sweet potato. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29: 9-14 (1996)
  14. Lee LS, Kim SJ, Rhim JW. Analysis of anthocyanin pigments from purple-fleshed sweet potato 'Jami'. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 555-560 (2000)
  15. Cheon SH, Hwang, SJ, Eun JB. Quality characteristics of puffed snacks (ppeongtuigi) with purple sweet potato flours using different puffing conditions. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 28-33 (2012)
  16. Kim SY, Ryu CH. Studies on nutritional components of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27: 819-825 (1995)
  17. Chun SH, Lee SU, Shin YS, Lee KS, Ru IH. Preparation of yogurt from milk added with purple sweet potato. Korean J. Food Nutr. 13: 71-77 (2000)
  18. Jung GT, Ju IO. Studies on the preparation of yogurt from milk added purple sweet potato powder. Korean J. Food Nutr. 10: 458-461 (1997)
  19. Ahn GJ. Quality characteristics of sulgidduk prepared with amount of purple sweet-potato powder. Korean J. Culinary Res. 16: 127-136 (2010)
  20. Kim SY, Ryu CH. Effect of certain additives on bread-marking quality of wheat-purple sweet potato flours. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 13: 492-499 (1995)
  21. Seo WT, Kim HG, Lee JS, Cho KM. Making of dongchimi naengmyeum broth which has enhanced antioxidant activity using purple sweet potato. Korean J. Microbiol. 47: 143-150 (2011)
  22. Francis F. Food colourants: Anthocyanins. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 28: 273-314 (1989)
  23. Kim JY, Yi YH. pH, acidity, color, amino acids, reducing sugars, total sugars, and alcohol in puffed millet powder containing millet takju during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 42: 727-732 (2010)
  24. Choi JH, Jeon JA, Jung ST, Park JH, Park SY, Lee CH, Kim TJ, Choi HS, Yeo SH. Quality characteristics of seoktanju fermented by using different nuruks. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39: 56-62 (2011)
  25. Jin TY, Kim ES, Wang SJ, Wang MH Changes in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rice wine, yakju prepared with different of red yeast rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 39, 309-314 (2007)
  26. So MH. Characteristics of a modified nuruk made by inoculation of tractional nuruk microorganisms. Korean J. Food Nutr. 12: 219-225 (1999)
  27. Kim SY, Kim EK, Yoon SJ, Jo NJ, Jung SK, Kwon SH, Chang YH, Jeong YH. Physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean traditional rice wine, makgeolli supplemented with cucumber during fermentation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 223-228 (2011)
  28. Jeon MH, Lee WJ. Characteristics of blueberry added makgeolli. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 444-449 (2011)
  29. Jin TY, Chung HJ, Eun JB. The effect of fermentation temperature on the quality of jinyangju, a Korean traditional rice wine. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 414-418 (2000)
  30. Kim CA, Lee WG, Lee IS, Wang MH. Changes of phytochemical, sensory, and antioxidant activity characteristics in rice wine. yakju added with different ratio of Codonopsis lanceolata. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 201-206 (2008)
  31. Woo SM, Jeong YJ, Whang K. Effect of germinated brown rice extract powder on free amino acid content, antioxidant, and nitrite scavenging ability of the Korean cabbage kimchi. Korean J. Food Preserv. 13: 548-554 (2006)
  32. Joo OS, Kang ST, Jeong CH, Lim JW, Park YG, Cho KM. Manufacturing of the enhances antioxidative wine using a ripe daebong persimmon (Dispyros kaki L). J. Appl. Biol. Chem. 54: 126-134 (2011)
  33. Lee MR, Rhee HS. A study on the flavor compounds of dongchimi. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 6: 1-8 (1990)
  34. Salah N, Miller NJ, Paganga G, Tijburg L, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans C. Polyphenolic flavanols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 322: 330-346 (1995)
  35. Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the of a stable free radcial. Nature 26: 1199-1204 (1954)
  36. Jeong CH, Choi GN, Kwak JH, Kim JH, Choi SG, Shim KH, Heo HJ. In vitro antioxidant activities of cocoa phenolics. Korean J. Food Preserv. 17: 100-106 (2010)
  37. Teow CC, Truong VD, McFeeter R, Thompson RL, Pecota KV, Yencho GC. Antioxidant activities, phenolic and ${\beta}$-carotene contents of sweet potato genotypes with varying flesh colours. Food Chem. 103: 829-838 (2007)
  38. Kwak JH, Choi GN, Park JH, Kim JH, Jeong HR, Jeong CH, Heo HJ. Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effect of purple sweet potato extract. J. Agric. Life Sci. 44: 57-66 (2010)
  39. Lachman J, Hamouz K, Šulc M, Orsak M, Pivec V, Hejtmankova A, Dvorak, Cepl J. Cultivar differences of total anthocyanins and anthocyanidins in red and purple-fleshed potatoes and their relation antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 114: 836-843 (2009)
  40. Huang YC, Chang YH, Shao YY. Effects of genotype and treatment on the antioxidant activity of sweet potato in Taiwan. Food Chem. 98: 529-538 (2006)
  41. Cho YJ, Kim HA, Bang MA, Oh YB, Jeon BC, Moon YH, Jeong WJ. Preactive effect of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) on hepatotoxicity rats induced by carbon terachlolide. Korean J. Food Culture 18: 202-210 (2003)

Cited by

  1. Physiological and Sensory Characteristics of Makgeolli with added Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) vol.45, pp.5, 2013,
  2. Quality Characteristics of Takju by Yeast Strain Type vol.27, pp.5, 2014,
  3. Immunomodulatory Activity of Crude Polysaccharides from Makgeolli vol.43, pp.2, 2014,
  4. Fermentation Characteristics of Shindari Added with Carrot vol.31, pp.1, 2015,
  5. Changes in Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.) Pickle during Ageing vol.44, pp.3, 2015,
  6. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities ofmakgeolli prepared using rice nuruk containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) vol.23, pp.2, 2016,
  7. Quality Characteristics of Korean Traditional Wines with Puffed Sorghum vol.44, pp.8, 2015,
  8. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweet Persimmon Distilled Spirits vol.44, pp.10, 2015,
  9. Characteristics of Fermentation and Aging by Different Adding of Brewing Water in Korean Traditional Cheongju vol.16, pp.8, 2015,
  10. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) makgeolli prepared with the Additive Methods vol.28, pp.4, 2015,
  11. Antioxidative Activity of Cheonggukjang Prepared with Purple Sweet Potato vol.46, pp.2, 2014,
  12. Substitution Effect of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Purple Sweet Potato Powder on Skim Milk in Yogurt Preparation vol.58, pp.4, 2015,
  13. Characterization of brewing microorganisms isolated from Korean traditional nuruk for Cheongju production vol.26, pp.4, 2017,
  14. Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P1201 to Produce Soy-yogurt with Enhanced Antioxidant Activity vol.46, pp.5, 2014,
  15. Physicochemical characteristics and ginsenoside content of Korean traditional wine produced by fermentation of Panax ginseng sprouts vol.25, pp.6, 2018,