DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Flavors in Fermented Jujube Wine by HPLC and GC/MS

GC-MS 및 HPLC를 이용한 대추발효주의 유리 아미노산 및 향기성분 분석

  • Received : 2012.07.23
  • Accepted : 2012.09.23
  • Published : 2012.12.31

Abstract

Characteristic chemical compositions of jujube wine using different preparation methods including fermentation were investigated. Fermentation for jujube wine started using whole fruit (JW1), seed-removed fruit (JW2) and whole fruit heated at $100^{\circ}C$ for 2 h and then extracted (JW3). The free amino acids and flavors were analyzed quantitatively by HPLC and GC-MS. A total of 18 amino acids were identified in all samples. The amount of total free amino acids was detected from 141-210 ppm (JW1), 147-342 ppm (JW2), and 336-362 ppm (JW3). Large amounts of proline, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and alanine were detected in jujube wine. Thirteen kinds of volatile compounds including six alcoholic compounds (ethyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, iso-amyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, and phenethyl alcohol), four ester (ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, and phenethyl acetate) and three aldehydes (diethylacetal, furfural, and benzaldehyde) were detected. Ethyl alcohol (30.50-33.95% peak area), benzaldehyde (2.55-15.97% ratio), furfural (0.07-15.28% ratio), iso-amyl alcohol (1.04-14.73% ratio), and phenethyl acetal (0.78-9.28% ratio) were abundant in jujube wine.

Keywords

free amino acids;flavors;jujube wine;HPLC;GC-MS

References

  1. Yoon PS. Pictorial Book of the Korean Garden Corp. Jishicksanup, Seoul, Korea. p.865 (1989)
  2. Cheongsong Agriculture Guide Laboratory. Jujube Cultivation Technical Guide. Cheongsong Agr. Guide Lab., Cheongsong, Korea pp. 15-17 (1991)
  3. Chung TH. Pictorial Book of the Korea Flora (part I). Kyoyuck, Seoul, Korea. p.134 (1974)
  4. Ryu TC. Food Handbook. Moonwundang, Seoul, Korea. pp. 88-90 (1988)
  5. Kang BC, Ko UC, Kim SH, Noh SH, Soe YB, Song HJ, Shin MK, Ahan DK, Lee SI, Lee YC, Lee KH, Joo YS. Herbal Medicine. Youngrimsa, Seoul, Korea. pp. 542-543 (1995)
  6. Shin YI, Yoon MS, Hong KH, Seon DS, Park SH. Development of fruit storage and processing technique. Report for horticulture lab, Seoul, Korea. pp. 385-390 (1990)
  7. Yoo JY, Seo HM, Shin DH, Min BY. Emulogical characteristics of Korean grapes and quality evaluation of their wine. Korean J. Appl. Microbiol. Bioeng. 12: 185-190 (1984)
  8. Kim DJ, Kim SG, Kim MH, Lee HB, Lee JS. Analysis of transresveratrol contents of grape and grape products consumed in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 764-768 (2003)
  9. Chung KT, Seo SK, Song HI. Changes of polyphenols and polyphenol oxidase active bands during apple wine fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 16: 413-417 (1984)
  10. Chung KT. Effect of bentonite and gelatin treatments on apple wine clearification. Res. Rev. Kyungpook Nat'l Univ. 27: 247-252 (1979)
  11. Kang MY, Jeong YH, Eun JB. Physical and chemical characteristics of flesh and pomace of Japanese apricots. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 1434-1439 (1999)
  12. Shin KW, Choi JS, Kang KS. Changes in major components of Japanese apricot during ripening. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr.18: 101-108 (1989)
  13. Lee YS. Study on the liquors of Yi-dynasty. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 2: 17-37 (1986)
  14. Lee SU, Lee HJ. Index of alcoholic beverage in Korean old literature. Korean J. Dietary Culture 1: 87-91 (1986)
  15. Park RD. Traditional folk liquor of Korea. Hyoilmunwhasa, Seoul, Korea. p. 67 (1987)
  16. Choi KS, Kwon KI, Lee JG, Lee PK. Studies on the chemical composition and antitumor activities of jujube tea products. J. Resour. Develop. 22: 23-29 (2003)
  17. Paek SE, Min TS. Selection of candidated for the resistance jujube varieties to the virus disease, trial on the multiplication of their generation and on the manufacturing of their fruits. Report for the Minister of Education, Seoul, Korea. pp. 39-47 (1969)
  18. Lee HB. Changes of chemical components of dried jujube (zizyphus jujuba MILLER) during storage. PhD thesis. Chungnam Natational University, Daejeon, Korea (1987)
  19. Shin SR, Han JP, Lee SH, Kong MT, Kim KS. Changes in the components of dried jujube, fruit by dring methods. J. Postharv. Sci. Technol. 16: 61-65 (1999)
  20. Kwon YI, Jung IC, Kim SY, Lee JS, Lee JS. Changes in properties of pitted jujube during drying and extraction. Agr. Chem. Biotechnol. 40: 43-47 (1997)
  21. Okamura N, Nohara T, Yagi A, Nishiok I. Studies of dannaraue type, saponin of Zizyphus frutus. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Japan 29:675-683(1981)
  22. Zyaeu R, Zrgasheve T, Israilov IA, Abdullaeu ND, Yunusou MS, Yunusov S. Alkaloids of Ziziphus jujuba, structure of yuziphine and yuzirine. Khim. Prir. Soedint. 2: 239-243 (1977)
  23. Park HJ, Min YK, Kim KY. Sterilization effects of hydrostatic pressure and low temperature treatments on the jujube wine. Food Eng. Prog. 22: 23-29 (2003)
  24. Min YK, Lee MR, Chung HS. Fermentation characteristics of jujube alcoholic beverage from different additional level of jujube fruit. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 40: 433-437 (1997)
  25. Kim JY, Min YK, Yoon HS. Flavor changes of Daechusul during storage. Food Eng. Prog. 99: 45-50 (2000)
  26. Ferreira V, Lopez R, Cacho J. Quantitative determination of the odorants of young red wines from different grape varieties. J. Sci. Food Agr. 80: 1659-1667 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(20000901)80:11<1659::AID-JSFA693>3.0.CO;2-6
  27. Large PJ. Degradation of organic nitrogen compounds by yeasts. Yeast 2: 1-34 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.320020102
  28. Vilanova M, Ugliano M, Varela C, Siebert T, Pretorius IS, Henschke P. Assimilable nitrogen utilisation and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds in chemically defined medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 77: 145-157 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-007-1145-z
  29. Hernandez-Orte P, Ibraz M, Cacho J, Ferreira V. Effect of addition of ammonium and amino acids to musts of 'Airen' variety on aromatic composition and sensory properties of the obtained wine. Food Chem. 89: 163-174 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.021
  30. Garde-Cerdan T, Ancin-Azpilicueta C. Effect of the addition of different quantities of amino acids to nitrogen-deficient must on the formation of esters, alcohols, and acids during wine alcoholic fermentation Lebens.-Wisse. Technol. 41: 501-510 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.018
  31. Hernandez-Orte P, Ibraz M, Cacho J, Ferreira V. Addition of amino acids to grape juice of the 'Merlot' variety: Effect on amino acid uptake and aroma generation during alcoholic fermentation. Food Chem. 98: 300-310 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.073
  32. Jimenez_marti E, Aranda A, Mendes-Ferreira A, Mendes-Faia A, Li del Olmo M. The nature of the nitrogen source added to nitrogen depleted vinifications conducted by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in synthetic must affects gene expression and the levels of several volatile compounds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 92: 61-75 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-006-9135-1
  33. Kim SY, Kozukue N, Han JS, Lee KR. Analytical method in Korean commercial tea by HPLC. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 5-9 (2006)
  34. Park MJ, Park MS, Lee TS, Shin IS. A new analytical method for erythromycin in fish by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 40: 508-513 (2008)
  35. Cho HJ, Yoo DC, Cho HN, Fan A, Kim HJ, Khang KW, Jeong HJ, Yang SA, Lee IS, Jhee KH. Analysis of phytochemicals in popular medicine herbs by HPLC and GC-MS. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 40: 277-282 (2008)
  36. Shin RD, Han JP, Lee SH, Kong MJ, Kim KS. Changes in the components of dried jujube fruit by drying method. J. Postharv. Sci. Technol. 16: 61-65 (1999)
  37. Kim SJ. The quality characteristics of fermented and soaked omijaju. MS thesis. Seoul Women's University, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  38. Ehrlich F. Uber das naturliche isomere des leucins. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 37: 1809-1840 (1904) https://doi.org/10.1002/cber.19040370295
  39. Nunokawa Y. Composition of sake. J. Soc. Brew. Jpn. 62: 854-860 (1967) https://doi.org/10.6013/jbrewsocjapan1915.62.854
  40. Yuda J. Volatile compounds from beer fermentation. J. Soc. Brew. Jpn. 71: 818-830 (1976)
  41. Nishiya T. Composition of soju. J. Soc. Brew. Jpn. 72: 415-432 (1977) https://doi.org/10.6013/jbrewsocjapan1915.72.415

Cited by

  1. Chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without pulp contact and protease treatment vol.36, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.0011
  2. Volatile components and sensory properties of jujube wine as affected by material preprocessing vol.21, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1514506