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Curcumin Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced MMP-9 and Invasion through ERK and Smad Signaling in Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

  • Mo, Na (Department of Pathology, Chongqing Medical University) ;
  • Li, Zheng-Qian (Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital (PUTH)) ;
  • Li, Jing (Department of Pathology, Chongqing Medical University) ;
  • Cao, You-De (Department of Pathology, Chongqing Medical University)
  • Published : 2012.11.30

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the effects of curcumin on matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion ability induced by transforming growth factor-${\beta}1$ (TGF-${\beta}1$) in MDA-MB-231 cells and potential mechanisms. Methods: Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were used with the CCK-8 assay to measure the cytotoxicity of curcumin. After treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-${\beta}1$, with or without curcumin (${\leq}10{\mu}M$), cell invasion was checked by transwell chamber. The effects of curcumin on TGF-${\beta}1$-stimulated MMP-9 and phosphorylation of Smad2, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) were examined by Western blotting. Supernatant liquid were collected to analyze the activity of MMP-9 via zymography. Following treatment with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK, and SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, Western blotting and zymography were employed to examine MMP-9 expression and activity, respectively. Results: Low dose curcumin (${\leq}10{\mu}M$) did not show any obvious toxicity to the cells, while $0{\sim}10{\mu}mol/L$ caused a concentration-dependent reduction in cell invasion provoked by TGF-${\beta}1$. Curcumin also markedly inhibited TGF-${\beta}1$-regulated MMP-9 and activation of Smad2, ERK1/2 and p38 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, PD98059, but not SB203580, showed a similar pattern of inhibition of MMP-9 expression. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited TGF-${\beta}1$-stimulated MMP-9 and the invasive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells, possibly associated with TGF-${\beta}$/Smad and TGF-${\beta}$/ERK signaling.

Keywords

Curcumin;breast cancer;TGF-${\beta}1$;MMP-9;MAPKs;invasion

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