Fabrication of Multiple-Frequency Exposure System for In Vitro Experiment

세포 실험용 다중 주파수 동시 노출 장치 제작

  • Kim, Tae-Hong (ElectroMagnetic Environment Research Center in Chungnam National University) ;
  • Seo, Min-Gyeong (Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Mun, Ji-Yeon (Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Pack, Jeong-Ki (Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University)
  • 김태홍 (충남대학교 전자파환경기술연구센터) ;
  • 서민경 (충남대학교 전파공학과) ;
  • 문지연 (충남대학교 전파공학과) ;
  • 백정기 (충남대학교 전파공학과)
  • Received : 2012.01.11
  • Accepted : 2012.01.26
  • Published : 2012.02.29


Recently, we are simultaneously exposed by various electromagnetic sources due to an increase of mobile communication services. However, EMF(Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Field) study has been performed mainly about only single frequency. The objective of this paper is to develop an multiple-frequency exposure system for in vitro experiment. The exposure unit for in vitro experiments was designed by radial transmission line type to get broadband characteristics to generate signals of CDMA at 836.5 MHz and WCDMA at 1950 MHz frequency simultaneously. The modulated signals were delivered to the conical antenna through amplifier, digital attenuator and RF combiner. SAR values were obtained by the averaged values of 3 measured values at 9 points in petri dish using the fiber optic temperature probe. The measured return loss was under -15 dB. For 1 W input power, the mean value and standard deviation of SAR were $0.105{\pm}0.019$ for the CDMA frequency and $0.262{\pm}0.055$ for the WCDMA frequency.


RTL;Conical Antenna;In Vitro;SAR


  1. C. K. Chou, H. Bassen, L. Osepchuck, Q. Balzano, R. Petersen, M. Meltz, R. Cleveland, J. C. Lin, and L. Heynick, "Radio frequency electromagnetic exposure tutorial review on experimental dosimetry", Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 17, issue 3, pp. 195-208, 1996.<195::AID-BEM5>3.0.CO;2-Z
  3. A. W. Guy, C. K. Chou, and J. A. McDougall, "A quarter century of in vitro research: A new look at exposure methods", Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, issue 8, pp. 21-39, Nov. 1999.<21::AID-BEM5>3.0.CO;2-M
  4. Maria Lucia Calabrese, Guglielmo d'Ambrosio, Rita Massa, and Giovanni Petraglia, "A high-efficiency waveguide applicator for in vitro exposure of mammalian cells at 1.95 GHz", IEEE MTT., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2256-2264, May 2006.
  5. Takahiro Lyama, Hidetoshi Ebara, Yoshiaki Tarusawa, Shinji Uebayashi, Masaru Sekijima, Toshio Nojima, and Junji Miyakoshi, "Large scale in vitro experiment system for 2 GHz exposure", Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, pp. 599-606, Oct. 2004.
  6. Milica Popovi'c, Susan C. Hagness, and Allen Taflove, "Finite-difference time domain analysis of a complete transverse electromagnetic cell loaded with liquid biological media in culture dishes", IEEE Trans. Biome., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1067-1076, Aug. 1998.
  7. Eduardo G. Moros, William L. Straube, and William F. Pickard, "The radial transmission line as a broadband shielded exposure system for microwave irradiation of large numbers of culture flasks", Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 65-80, 1999.<65::AID-BEM1>3.0.CO;2-W
  8. C. H. Papas, R. King, "Input impedance of wide-angle conical antennas fed by a coaxial line", Proceeding of IRE, vol. 37, issue 11, pp. 1269-1271, Nov. 1949.
  9. G. M. James, S. S. Glenn, "Optimization of a conical antenna for pulse radiation: An efficient design using resistive loading", IEEE Trans., AP, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 940-947, Jul. 1993.
  10. V. Hansen, A. Bitz, J. Streckert, and A. Lerchl, "RF-exposure system for the uniform exposure of a large number of biological samples", Inter. Symp., EMC, Japan, pp. 349-352, 1999.