A Comparative Study of Children from Multicultural and Rural Families: Sense of Self-Identity, Maternal Parenting Behavior and School Satisfaction

Cho, Han Suk;Moon, Hyukjun

  • Received : 2012.10.10
  • Accepted : 2012.12.07
  • Published : 2012.12.30


This study determines the factors that contribute to the sense of self-identity for children from multicultural and rural families and provides a systematic understanding of individual self-identity. It also provides implications on how parents, teachers, and professionals can approach their role when instructing and rearing children of different sociocultural backgrounds. The subjects consist of the 310 children from multicultural families (Korean fathers and immigrant mothers) residing in South Korea and 280 children from rural families with similar conditions to those in multicultural families in North Jeolla Province South Korea. The sense of self-identity and maternal parenting behavior were perceived differently by children of multicultural and rural families, whose sense of self-identity was affected by school satisfaction and maternal parenting behavior.


multicultural children;rural children;self-identity;maternal parenting behavior;school satisfaction


  1. Bosma, H. A., & Gerrits, R. S. (1985). Family functioning and identity status in adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 5(1), 69-80.
  2. Byun, M. S. (2005). Elementary students' perception on the relation between parents' rearing attitudes and children's adjustment to school life. Master's thesis, Wonkwang University, Jeonbuk.
  3. Cho, H. S. (2010). A sense of self-identity in elementary school children of multicultural families: In respect to the relations between maternal mother's behaviors and children's satisfaction levels with school. Doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul.
  4. Choe, J. S. (2008). Task of substantialization of teaching Korean in the multi-cultural era. The Korean Society of Bilingualism, 37, 287-316.
  5. Cohen, N. (1982). Same or different? A problem of identity in cross-cultural marriage. Journal of Family Therapy, 4, 177-199.
  6. Felner, R. D., Ginter, M. A., & Primavera, J. (1982). Primary prevention during school transitions: Social support and environmental structure. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 277-290.
  7. Garrod, A., Ward, J. V., Robinson, T. L., & Kikenny, R. (1999). Souls looking back: Life stories of growing up back. New York: Routledge.
  8. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. (1985). Patterns of interaction in family relationships and the development of identity formation in adolescence. Child Development, 56, 415-428.
  9. Han, G. S. (2006). Family life and cultural encounter of foreign wives in rural area. Korean Society for Cultural Anthropology, 39(1), 198-243.
  10. Herring, R. D. (1992). Biracial children: An increasing concern for elementary and middle-school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 27, 123-130.
  11. Hwang, B. J. (2008). A study on educational policy for multicultural family children. Doctoral dissertation, Anyang University, Gyeonggi.
  12. Jung, Y. J. (2007). Family characteristics and school adjustment of the children of marriage migrantfamilies. Master's thesis, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul.
  13. Kang, Y. J. (2005). The developing the inventory of the level of children's school life satisfaction survey in elementary school. The Journal of Elementary Education, 12(2), 187-204.
  14. Kim, G. J. (2008). Psychological problems and school adjustment of the children of multicultural family. Master's thesis, Jinju National University, Jinju.
  15. Kim, H. J. (2003). Effecting adolescents school adjustment from the low-income family. Master's thesis, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul.
  16. Kim, H. T. (1989). A study of the development and the measurement of ego-identity in Korean youth. Doctoral dissertation, Chungnam National University, Daejeoun.
  17. Kim, M. J. (2004). The relations between children's perception of parental childrearing behaviors and their behavior problems. Master's thesis, Yonsei University, Seoul.
  18. Kim, S. I. (2010). Comparison of psychological features between children in multicultural families and children in general families regarding adaptation to school life. Master's thesis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul.
  19. Kwak, K. J. (2008). Development and adaptation of children from multicultural families. Symposium of Korean Psychological Association, 1-26.
  20. Lee, H. R., & Cheon, M. S. (2003). Relationship analyses between adolescents' ego-identity and school life adjustments. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 10(4), 511-541.
  21. Lee, K. Y. (2002). Ego-identity of school-aged children: Effects of level of income and perceived parental behaviors. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 40(10), 65-76.
  22. Lee, S. G. (1995). The relationship between ego-identity and adolescent's perception of parent's rearing attitudes. Master's thesis, Keimyung University, Daegu.
  23. Lee, S. H., & Choi, W. S. (2008). A study on the cultural identity and social relationships of children in an international marriage family. Korean Journal of Family Welfare, 13(3), 163-185.
  24. McRoy, R. G., & Freeman, E. (1986). Racial identity issues among mixed-race children. Social Work in Education, 8, 164-174.
  25. Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (2008). Korean child and adolescent development report. Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, Korea.
  26. Ministry of Health and Welfare (2006). Analysis of immigrant marriage in Korea. Ministry of Health & Welfare, Korea.
  27. Moon, M. A. (2001). The relation of self concept, selfefficacy and school related achievement. Master's thesis, Hongik University, Seoul.
  28. Oh, K. S. (2007). Multiculturalism in South Korea: A critical review. Hanwool.
  29. Oh, S. B. (2005). A case study on the growing of Kosian children and its social environment. Journal of Korean Education, 32(3), 61-83.
  30. Pable, M. W. (1965). Some parental determinants of ego identity in adolescent boys. Dissertation Abstracts International, 26, 3480-3481.
  31. Park, A. C. (2003). Validation of Korean adolescent ego-identity scale. The Korea Journal of Psychology, 17(3), 373-393.
  32. Park A. C., & Lee, S. K. (2000). A structural analysis of ecological variables affecting adolescent ego-identity development centered on sex and age. The Journal of Education Research, 20(2), 255-282.
  33. Park, S. H. (1995). Home environment of elementary school children and the relationship between school adjustment and satisfaction. Master's thesis, Konkuk University, Seoul.
  34. Poston, W. (1990). The biracial identity development model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 152-155.
  35. Richardson, R., Galambos, N, M., Schulenberg, J., & Peterson, A. (1984). Young adolescents' perception of the family environment. Journal of Early Adolescence, 5, 131-153.
  36. Rutter, M. (1985). Studies of psychosocial risk: The power of longitudinal data. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  37. Statistics Korea (2012). Statistic Korea.
  38. Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Relations, 18(3), 329-343.
  39. Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Maciver, D., Reuman, D. A., & Midgley, C. (1991). Transitions during early adolescence: Changes in children's domain-specific selfperceptions and general self-esteem across the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 27, 552-565.
  40. Williams, T. K., Nakashima, C. L., Kich, G. K., & Daniel, G. R. (1996). Being different together in the university classroom: Multiracial identity as transgressive education. In M. P. Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  41. Yang, S. M. (2006). Adjustment and an aspect of family life of the rural international marriage couple- Focusing on the Chinese (Korea tribe), Japanese, and Philippine immigrant woman and their husband. The Korean Rural Sociological Society, 16(2), 151-179.
  42. Yang, W. K. (1999). The Relations between peer acceptance and peer victimization and self-esteem in adolescents. Master's thesis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul.
  43. Yang, S. M., & Yoo, Y. J. (2003). Effects of self-esteem, healthiness of family, and sociodemographic variables on the school life adjustment in rural adolescents. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 41(9), 121-134.
  44. Yoon, G. S. (2005). Relationship between student's perception of teacher's behaviors and the student's satisfaction level in their school lives. Master's thesis, Suncheon University, Jeonnam.