Molecular Characteristics of Human Noroviruses Genogroup I and Genogroup II Detected in Acute Gastroenteritis Patients in Seoul

급성위장관염 환자에서 검출된 노로 바이러스 Genogroup-I과 Genogroup-II의 분자생물학적 특성

  • Received : 2011.12.12
  • Accepted : 2012.02.20
  • Published : 2012.02.29


Objectives: For our survey of the incidence of norovirus infections and the genogroup distribution of norovirus in Seoul, Republic of Korea, we evaluated through regular surveillance the prevalence of norovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis occurring in Seoul from January 2007 to July 2011. Methods: For norovirus detection, we conducted epidemiological analyses on the basis of the junction of ORF1 and ORF2 (approximately 314 bp). 11,202 fecal specimens were collected from patients in Seoul with acute gastroenteritis between January 2007 and July 2011 and then tested for the presence of NoV via reverse transcription (RT) - polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: 16.6% (1,861/11,202) of the fecal specimens were determined to be positive for noroviruses. The incidences of norovirus infection in Seoul in the case of acute gastroenteritis with regular surveillance were 28.0% in 2007, 14.6% in 2008, 9.1% in 2009, 14.1% in 2010, and 12.9% in 2011, which shows that noroviruses constituted a major causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. Also, the incidence of noroviral infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis increased after the large-scale new influenza in 2009. Conclusions: The genetic characteristics of norovirus and the epidemiologic patterns of a viral pathogen in acute gastroenteritis patients may provide potentially effective data for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea.




  1. KHRDI: Lecture Manual on Norovirus Test Education, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Yearly Manual, 2010; 13-23.
  2. KHRDI: Lecture Manual on Virus Test Education for Health Center Members, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Yearly Manual, 2006; 59-66.
  3. National Institute of Invironmental Research: Future Direction of Improvement in Drinking Water Safety, International Seminar on the World Water Day 2008 Manual, 2008; 125-129.
  4. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Enternet Korea, Yearly Report, 2011; 47-62.
  5. Phan TG, Nguyen TA, Kuroiwa T, et al. Viral diarrhea in Japaneses children : results from one year epidemiologic study. Clin Lab, 2005; 51: 183-191.
  6. Kim EJ, Park SH, Lee JI, Song MO, et al.: Molecular characteristics of human noroviruses detected from acute gastroenteritis patients in Seoul, Report of S.I.H.E., 2007; 43: 265-270.
  7. Papaventsis DC, Dove W, Cunliffe NA, et al. Norovirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis, Madagascar, 2004-2005. Emerg Infect Dis, 2007; 13(6): 908-911.
  8. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 2006 Winter Norovirus Endemic Tides. Communicable Disease Monthly Report, 2007; 18(1): 8-9.
  9. Chen MF, Gao Y, Jia LP, et al. A study on viral gastroenteritis attributed to noroviruses in hospitals. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi, 2007; 28(2): 141-143.
  10. Guntapong R, Hansman GS, Oka T, et al. Norovirus and sapovirus infections in Thailand. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004; 57: 276-278.
  11. Kageyama T, Shinohara M, Uchida K, et al. Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus. Jap J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42: 2988-2995.
  12. Jiang X, Wang J, Graham DY, Estes MK. Detection of norwalk virus in stool by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30: 2529-2534.
  13. Burton-MacLeod JA, Kane EM, Beard RS, et al. Evaluation and comparison of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for detection of antigenically diverse human noroviruses in stool samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 2: 2587- 2595.
  14. de Leon R, Matsui SM, Baric RS, et al. Detection of Norwalk virus in stool specimens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nonradioactive oligoprobes. J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30: 3151-3157.
  15. Kaplan JE, Feldman R, Campbell DS, et al. The frequency of a Norwalk-like pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroente- ritis. Am J Public Health. 1982; 72: 1329-1332.
  16. Kukkula M, Maunula L, Silvennoinen E, von Bonsdorff CH. Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water contaminated by Norwalk-like viruses. J Infect Dis. 1999; 180: 1771-1776.
  17. KFDA, Advertizing Website related with Food Borne Disease, [accessed 17 February 2012]
  18. Kim SH, Cheon DS, KIm JH, et al. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred during school excursions in Korea were associated with several waterborne strains of norovirus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43: 4836-4839.
  19. Park SH, Kim EJ, Oh SA, et al. Viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in Seoul, Korea. Clin Lab, 2011; 57: 59-65.

Cited by

  1. No Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Ixodid Ticks Collected in Seoul vol.52, pp.2, 2014,