- Volume 8 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Using Colours to alter Consumer Behaviour and Product Success
- Page, Tom (Electronic Product Design in Department Design and Technology Loughborough University) ;
- Thorsteinsson, Gisli (Design and Craft Education Department University of Iceland) ;
- Ha, Joong-Gyu (Industrial Design in Fine Art Education Department Gyeongsang National University)
- Received : 2011.10.31
- Accepted : 2012.01.30
- Published : 2012.03.28
This paper aims to present colour theories and show how they can be used to explain consumer's preferences of some products over others. It will, furthermore, attempt to link these theories to the design industry and look at how colour associations determine product success. Due to associative learning and personal preference, the colours of objects can cause consumers to either favour or dislike products over those with identical functions and efficiency. Age and gender affect the preferred colour choices of the individual, making some products more popular to particular groups of potential consumers. Designers can utilise colour theories to ensure that they use the most appropriate colour schemes to maximise and appeal to their targeted market successfully. A survey was conducted with 100 participants. It demonstrates the associative links between colours, emotions and product categories. It can be shown that the colour of an object can contribute to its success or failure in the market based on a number of different criteria. The design must use colour confidently to evoke certain emotions or connotations and must be carried out appropriately. The designer also has to consider whom it is that be viewing it and making the decision of preference.
- D. Russell, Colour in industrial design, The Design Council London, 1991.
- L. Cheskin, Colours and what they can do, Blandford Press Ltd, London, 1951.
- F. Jackson, "Philosophising about colour. In Color Perception", S. Davies, Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science, Vol. 9, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 152 - 162.
- P. Zelinski and M.P. Fisher, Colour for designers and artists, The Herbert Press London, 1989.
- T.A. Shrimp, "Neo-Pavlovian conditioning and it implications for consumer theory and research", in T.S. Robertson, H.H. Kassarjian (Eds), Handbook of Consumer Behaviour, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1991.
- R.P. Heath, The wonderful world of colour, Marketing tools, 1997. http://www.demographics.com/publications/mt/9710_mt?mt971022.tm.
- S.G. Beatty, "H-P goes in for a marketing makeover", Wall Street Journal, 1997.
- J. Davidoff, Cognition through color, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991.
- R.F. Wilson, Colour in Industry today; A practical book on the functional use of colour, Unwin Brothers limited, Woking and London, 1960.
- D. Steven, Colour perception: philosophical, psychological artistic and computational perspectives, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000.
- W. Sargant, The enjoyment and use of colour, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, 1964.
- A.J. Elliot, M.A. Maier, A.C. Moller, R. Friedman, & J. Meinhardt, "Color and psychological functioning: The effect of red on performance attainment", Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 136, No. 1, (2007), pp. 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3418.104.22.168
- M. Hemphill, "A note on adults colour-emotion associations", Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 157, (1996), p. 275. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1996.9914865
- F. Birren, Color and human responses. Aspects of light and colour bearing on the reactions of living things and the welfare of human beings, Van Nostrand Reinhold Limited, New York, 1978.
- A. Wright, Beginners guide to colour psychology, Kyle Cathie Ltd, London, 1995.
- A. Wright, Colour psychology, 2008. Available at http://www.colour-affects.co.uk. (Accessed 1 March 2010).
- J. Gage, Colour and meaning; Art, Science and symbolism, Thames and Hudson, London, 1992.
- J. Albers, Interaction of colour, Yale University Press, London, 1963.
- R.P. Grossman, J.Z. Wisenblit, "What we know about consumer's color choices", Journal of Marketing Practice; Applied Marketing Science, 1999, pp.78-88.
- D. Funk and N.O. Ndubisi, "Colour and product choice: a study of gender roles", Journal of Management research news, 2006, pp. 41-52.
- How colour similarity can make banner advertising effective: insights from Gestalt theory vol.36, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1267264
- The role of individual colour preferences in consumer purchase decisions pp.03612317, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22180
- The Conceptual Framework of Quality Product Design Based on Computer Aided Design (CAD) vol.09, pp.14, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2018.914171