Bacterial Community Dynamics during Swine In vitro Fermentation Using Starch as a Substrate with Different Feed Additives for Odor Reduction

  • Alam, Md.J. (Ruminant Nutrition and Anaerobe Laboratory, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Jeong, C.D. (Ruminant Nutrition and Anaerobe Laboratory, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Mamuad, L.L. (Ruminant Nutrition and Anaerobe Laboratory, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Sung, H.G. (Adbiotech Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, D.W. (Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Cho, S.B. (Animal Environment Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Lee, K. (Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University) ;
  • Jeon, C.O. (Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-S. (Ruminant Nutrition and Anaerobe Laboratory, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University)
  • Received : 2011.11.27
  • Accepted : 2012.03.28
  • Published : 2012.05.01


The experiment was conducted by in vitro fermentation and bacterial community analysis to investigate the reduction of odorous compounds in response to the use of feed additives (FA) during carbohydrate overload in growing pigs. Soluble starch at 1% (control) and various FA at 0.1% Ginseng meal (FA1); Persimmon leaf (FA2); Gingko nut (FA3) and Oregano lippia (FA4) were added to fecal slurry and incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. In vitro parameters and microbial diversity of the dominant bacteria following fermentation were analyzed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), band cloning and sequencing of the V3 region. Results showed that total gas production increased with the advancement of incubation (p<0.05). pH values of FAs and control groups were decreased except the FA4 group which increased somewhat from 12 to 24 h (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) and $H_2S$ gas concentrations were comparatively lower in both stages in FA4 treatment than in the other groups (p<0.05). Hence, $NH_3$-N concentrations in liquid phases were increased (p<0.05) from 12 to 24 h, but the trend was lowest in FA4 than in the other groups at both stages. The total VFA production was comparatively lower and butyrate levels were moderate in FA4 group than in the the other groups during both stages (p<0.05). Indirect odor-reducing compounds such as $NO_2$, $NO_3$ and $SO_4$ concentrations were higher in the FA4 and FA3 than in the other groups at 24 h (p<0.05). After fermentation, ten dominant bands appeared, six of which appeared in all samples and four in only the FA4 treated group. The total number of DGGE bands and diversity was higher in the FA4-group compared to other groups. Additionally, similarity indices were lowest (71%) in the FA4, which represented a different bacterial community compared with the other groups. These findings indicate that $NH_3$-N, $H_2S$ and VFA production was minimal, and pH was also better in the FA4 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, the conversion of odor-reducing indirect compounds or their intermediates was higher in the FA4 group in compared to the other groups. FA4 group generated less odorous products and more indirect products by in vitro fermentation at 24 h, and their microbial pattern appeared to differ from that of the other groups. These findings suggest that this particular FA could change the microbial population, which may have a beneficial effect on odor reduction. It is recommended that the oregano lippia may be supplied to growing pigs as FA along with excess carbohydrate sources to reduce the production of odorous compounds.


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration


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