Multi-group Analysis of Employment Status in Isolation, Interaction, Content Satisfaction, Achievement and Persistence in Cyber University

사이버대학생의 직장 유무에 따른 고립감, 상호작용, 콘텐츠만족도, 성취도 및 학습지속의향의 구조적 관계 분석

  • 주영주 (이화여자대학교 교육공학과) ;
  • 유나연 (이화여자대학교 교육공학과) ;
  • 설현남 (이화여자대학교 교육공학과)
  • Received : 2012.02.08
  • Accepted : 2012.04.18
  • Published : 2012.05.28


The purpose of the present study is to examine the causal relationship and invest the difference among isolation, interaction, content satisfaction, achievement and persistence in cyber university education by employment status. For this study, 104 students at A cyber university in Korea completed surveys in the fall semester of 2011. The result of this study indicated that there was a meaningful effect of interaction on isolation. Secondly, there was a meaningful effect of interaction on content satisfaction. Thirdly there was a meaningful effect of interaction on achievement. Lastly there were meaningful effects of isolation and interaction on persistence. In addition, according to multi-group analysis, there were no significant differences of structural path coefficients between two groups. Based on these results, this study suggests instructional design methods and management strategies to improve the quality of learning in cyber universities.


Isolation;Interaction;Content Satisfaction;Achievement;Persistence;Cyber University


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. 강명희, 박미순, 정지윤, 박효진, "웹기반 프로젝트 학습에서 학습자 간 상호작용과 학습실재감이 학습성과에 미치는 영향", 교육정보미디어연구, 제15권, 제2호, pp.67-85, 2009.
  2. 교육과학기술부, "사이버대학 설립요령안내", 서울: 교육과학기술부, 2010.
  3. 권성호, 서윤경, 유숙영, "웹 기반 학습에서의 지속동기를 위한 학습 공간 인식에 대한 고찰", 교육정보방송연구, 제8권, 제4호, pp.219-247, 2007.
  4. 김미량, 김진숙, "사이버 가정학습에 대한 학습자의 태도 및 만족도 분석", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제7권, 제10호, pp.1-338, 2007.
  5. 김원경, 황성현, 곽승우, "사이버대학에서 교수자-학습자 간, 학습자-학습자 간 상호작용이 학업성취도에 미치는 영향", 교육정보미디어연구, 제12권, 제1호, pp.23-46, 2006.
  6. 김주환, 김민규, 홍세희, "구조방정식모형으로 논문쓰기", 서울: 커뮤니케이션북스, 2009.
  7. 유명환, 최인영, "e-러닝 기반의 시각디자인 교육 방법론 연구", 디자인학연구, 제20권, 제4호, 2007.
  8. 김주환, 김은주, 홍세희, "한국 남녀 중학생 집단에서 자기결정성이 학업성취도에 주는 영향", 교육심리연구, 제20권, 제1호, pp.243-264, 2006.
  9. 이규하, 기업 이러닝에서 학습자가 인식하는 감성적 실재감과 몰입, 학습 효과와의 관계 규명, 이화여자대학교 교육대학원, 석사학위논문, 2011.
  10. 이정영, 저소득층 여성 한부모의 사회적 관계망이 고립감에 미치는 영향, 숙명여자대학교 대학원 정책대학원, 석사학위논문, 2007.
  11. 정봉영, "사이버대학 학습자들의 인구학적 특성에 따른 학업성취도와 수업만족도 분석", 교육정보미디어연구, 제10권, 제3호, pp.127-150, 2004.
  12. J. B. Arbaugh,, "Virtual classroom characteristics and student satisfaction with internet-based MBA courses," Journal of management education, Vol.24, No.1, pp.32-54, 2000.
  13. R. Asher and A. Paquette, "Loneliness and Peer Relations in Childhood," Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol.12, No.3, pp.75-78, 2003.
  14. S. R. Asher and S. Hymel, P. D. Renshaw, "Loneliness in Children," Child Development, Vol.55, No.4, pp.1456-1464, 1984.
  15. A. W. Astin, Preventing students from dropping out, SanFrancisco, CA :Jossey-Bass, 1993.
  16. J. A. Baker, "Teacher-Student Interaction in Urban At-Risk Classrooms: Differential Behavior, Relationship Quality, and Student Satisfaction with School," The Elementary School Journal, Vol.100, No.1, pp.57-70, 1999.
  17. J. Bean and B. Metzner, "Conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition," Review of Educational Research, Vol.55, pp.485-650, 1985.
  18. S. Bibeau, "Social presence, isolation, and connectedness in online teaching and learning: From the literature to real life," Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems, Vol.15, No.3, pp.35-39, 2001.
  19. M. N. Boulos, A. D. Taylor and A. Breton, "A Synchronous Communication Experiment within an Online Distance Learning Program : A Case Study," Telemedicine and e-Health, Vol.11, No.5, pp.583-593, 2005.
  20. B. Byrne, "Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming," Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001.
  21. L. Corno and R. Kanfer, "The role of volition in learning and performance," Review of Research in Education, Vol.19, pp.301-341, 1993.
  22. S. J. Cotton, M. F. Dollard, and J. D. Jonge, "Stress and Student Job Design: Satisfaction, Well-Being, and Performance in University Students," International Journal of Stress Management, Vol.9, No.3, pp.147-162, 2002.
  23. J. W. Dallam and D. P. Hoyt, "Do college students have enough time to study?," College and University, Vol.57, No.1, pp.84-91, 1981.
  24. M. D. Dickey, "The impact of web-logs on student perceptions of isolation and alienation in a webbased distance learning environment," Open learning, Vol.19, No.3, pp.279-291, 2004.
  25. L. Dundes and J. Marx, "Balancing work and academics in college : Why do students working 10 to 19 hours per week excel?," Journal of College Student Retention : Research, Theory & Practice, Vol.8, pp.107-120, 2006.
  26. E. A. Erichsen and D. U. Bolliger, "Towards understanding international graduate student isolation in traditional and on-line environments," Education Tech Research Dev, Vol.59, pp.309-326, 2011.
  27. J. M. Galusha, "Barriers to learning in distance education," Interpersonal Computing and Technology, Vol.5, No.3/4, pp.6-14, 1997.
  28. D. R. Garrison and M. Cleveland-Innes, "Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online learning: Interaction is Not Enough," The american journal of distance education, Vol.19, No.3, pp.133-148, 2005.
  29. J. Gorham, "The relationship between verbal teacher immediacy behaviors and student learning," Communication Education, Vol.37, No.1, pp.40-53, 1988.
  30. C. N. Gunawardena and F. J. Zittle, "Social Presence as a Predictor of Satisfaction within a Computer mediated Conferencing Environment," The american journal of distance education, Vol.11, No.3, 1997.
  31. C. Gutwin, G. Stark, and S. Greenberg, "Support for workspace awareness in educational groupware, In the first international conference on Computer support for collaborative learning," Hillsdale, NJ, 1995.
  32. W. W. Hartup, "Social isolation vs. interaction with adults in relation to aggression in preschool children," The journal of abnormal and social psychology, Vol.59, No.1, pp.17-22, 1959.
  33. O. Hatice and K. Melek, "Problematic Internet use, loneliness and dating anxiety among young adult university students," Computers & Education, Vol.55, pp.1091-1097, 2010.
  34. D. Jacoby, "Effects of Part-Time Faculty Employment on Community College Graduation Rates," The Journal of Higher Education, Vol.77, No.6, pp.1081-1103, 2006.
  35. R. D. Johnson, S. Hornik, and E. Salas, "An empirical examination of factors contributing to the creation of successful e-learning environments," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol.66, No.5, pp.356-369, 2008.
  36. G. Kearsley, "Online Education : Learning and Teaching in Cyberspace," Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 2000.
  37. J. Kim, Y. Kwon, and D. Cho, "Investigating factors that influence social presence and learning outcomes in distance higher education," Computers & Education, Vol.57, pp.1512-1520, 2011.
  38. J. M. Kishton and K. F. Widamn, "Unidimensional versus domain representative parceling of questionnaire items : An empirical example," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol.54, No.3, pp.757-765, 1994.
  39. G. D. Kuh, and S. Hu, "The effects of student-faculty interaction in the 1990's," The Review of Higher Education, Vol.24, No.3, pp.309-332, 2001.
  40. R. Lucas and N. Lammont, "Combining Work and Study : an empirical study of full-time students in school, college and university," Journal of Education and Work, Vol.11, No.1, pp.41-56, 1998.
  41. R. C. MacCallum, M. Roznowski, and J. Reith, "Alternative strategies for corss-validation of covariance structure models," Multivariate Behavioral Research, Vol.29, pp.1-32, 1994.
  42. R. H. Maki and W. S. Maki, "Predisction of learning and Satisfaction in Web-Based and Lecture Courses," Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol.28, No.3, pp.197-220, 2003.
  43. J. C. McCroskey, A. Sallinen, J. M. Fayer, V. P. Richmond, and R. A. Barraclough, "Nonverbal immediacy and cognitive learning : a cross-cultural investigation," Communication Education, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 200-211, 1996.
  44. L. A. McNall and J. S. Michel, "A dispositional approach to work-school conflict and enrichment," Journal of Business and Psychology, 2010.
  45. M. G. Moore, "Three types of interaction. The american journal of distance education," Vol.3, No.2, pp.119-140, 1989.
  46. T. Muller, "Persistence of women in online degree completion programs," International Review of Research in open and distance learning, Vol.9, No.2, 2008.
  47. S. A. Nonis and G. I. Hudson, "Academic Performance of College Students: Influence of Time Spent Studying and Working," Journal of Education for Business, Vol.81, No.3, pp.151-159, 2006.
  48. K. M. Nowack and A. L. Hanson, "The relationship between stress, job performance, and burnout in college student resident assistants," Journal of College Student Personnel, Vol.24, No.6, pp.545-550, 1983.
  49. A. G. Picciano, "Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course," JALN, Vol.6, No.1, pp.21-40, 2002.
  50. G. R. Picke, "The effects of background, coursework, and involvement on students' grades and satisfaction," Research in Higher Education, Vol.32, pp.15-30, 1991.
  51. S. B. Plank, "A Question of Balance: CTE, Academic Courses, High School Persistence, and Student Achievement," Journal of Vocational Education Research, Vol.26, No.3, pp.279-327, 2001.
  52. J. C. Richardson and K. Swan, "Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students' perceived learning and satisfaction," JALN, Vol.7, No.1, pp.68-88, 2003.
  53. V. P. Richmond, J. S. Gorham, and J. C. McCroskey, "The relationship between selected immediacy behaviors and cognitive learning," Communication yearbook, Newbury Park, CA : Sage, 1987.
  54. P. Robins, "Organizational Behavior", NJ: Prentice Hall Merrill, 2003.
  55. A. P. Rovai, "In Search of higher persistence rates in distance education online programs," Internet and higher education, Vol.6, pp.1-16, 2003.
  56. A. P. Rovai and M. J. Wighting, "Feelings of alienation and community among higher education students in a virtual classroom," Internet and Higher Education, Vol.8, pp.97-110, 2005.
  57. D. Russell, A. P. Letitia, and E. C. Carolyn, "The revised UCLA Loneliness scale : concurrent and discriminant validity evidence," Journal of personality and social psychology, Vol.39, No.3, pp.472-480, 1980.
  58. T. Russo and S. Benson, "Learning with invisible others : Perceptions of online presence and their relationship to cognitive and affective learning," Educational Technology & Society, Vol.8, No.1, pp.54-62, 2005.
  59. D. A. Sass and P. L. Smith, "The effects of parceling unidimensional scales on structural parameter estimates in structural equation modeling," Structural Equation Modeling, Vol.13, No.4, pp.566-586, 2006.
  60. S. Shaw and S. Polovina, "Practical experiences of, and lessons learnt from, Internet technologies in higher education," Educational Technology & Society, Vol.2, No.3, pp.16-24, 1999.
  61. N. Shin, "Transactional Presence as a critical predictor of success in distance learning," Distance Education, Vol.24, No.1, pp.69-86, 2003.
  62. K. Swan, "Virtual interaction : Design factors affecting student satisfaction and perceived learning in asynchronous online courses," Distance Education, Vol.22, No.2, pp.306-331, 2001.
  63. S. F. Tello, "An Analysis of Student Persistence in Online Education," Information Communication Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, pp.1163-1178, 2008.
  64. V. Tinto, "Dropout from higher education : a theoretical synthesis of recent research," Review of Educational Research, Vol.45, No.1, pp.89-125, 1975.
  65. H. Valas, "Students with learning disabilities and low-achieving students : Peer acceptance, Loneliness, Self-Esteem, and Depression," Social Psychology of Education, Vol.3, pp.173-192, 1999.
  66. D. Walker and R. E. Beauchene, "The relationship of loneliness, social isolation, and physical health to dietary adequacy of independently living elderly," Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol.91, No.3, pp.300-304, 1991.
  67. S. L. Walker and B. J. Fraser, "Development and validation of an instrument for assessing distance education learning environments in higher education : The distance education learning environments survey," Learning environments Research, Vol.8, pp.289-308, 2005.