DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of On-Line Community Assisted Team Learning Activities on University Students' Academic Achievement and on the Scores of Shared Mental Model Subscales

온라인 커뮤니티 보조의 팀 학습이 대학생들의 학업성취도와 공유된 정신모형에 미치는 효과

  • Received : 2012.02.21
  • Accepted : 2012.05.02
  • Published : 2012.05.28

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of On-Line Community Assisted Team Learning (OCATL) activities on academic achievement and team member's Shared Mental Model(SMM) subscale scores. Two studies were conducted over two semesters in different universities. The first study was aimed at examining the effects of OCATL on university students' academic achievement using pre- and post- experimental design. For this experiment, 133 university students composed of 80 male and 53 female students from 13 colleges participated. The OCATL activities included the orientation of OCATL, seminar on collaborative learning, on-line community assisted team learning with sixteen hour participation during one semester and a final report (or a term paper). To measure these students' academic achievement, their pre- and post-semester's GPA were compared. The results of paired t-test revealed a significant difference in academic achievement (p<.05). The second study was designed to compare the scores of SMM subscales of the experimental group with the OCATL activities and those of the control group without using OCATL activities. The data was collected using the scale of Shared Mental Model(SMM)-short version developed by Johnson in 2011[18]. For this study, 74 participants from 10 teams served as an experimental group and 15 teams which were not exposed to OCATL activities served as a control group. The MANOVA results showed that SMM subscores of two groups measured after the experiment were statistically significantly different: The experimental group with the OCATL activities showed high scores on general task and team knowledge, general task and communication skills, attitudes toward team and task, team dynamics and interactions, team resources and working environment, and satisfaction with the team.

Keywords

On Line Learning Community;Academic Achievement;Team Learning;Shard Mental Model

References

  1. 나승일, 임창빈, 이무영, 이응구, 김진실, "대학 교과목 연계형 학습공동체 구축 모형 개발", 농업교육과 인적자원개발, 제37권, 제4호, pp.303-318, 2005.
  2. 박은숙, "팀 커뮤니케이션 향상을 위한 팀기반학습의 대학수업에서의 적용", 한국기독교교육정보, 제27권, pp.171-199, 2010.
  3. 이영민, "이러닝 기반 팀 학습환경에서 팀인지와 팀활동과정, 팀성과 간 상관관계 탐색", 한국컴퓨터교육학회, 제10권, 제3호, pp.31-38, 2007.
  4. K. Bielaczyc and A. Collins, "Learning communities in classrooms: A reconceptualization of educational practice," I. C. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models. A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mohwah, NJ: Lawernce Erlbaum Associates, Vol.2, pp.269-292, 1991.
  5. R. DuFour and E. Robert, Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/calexander/changebook, 1998.
  6. M. D. Cannon and A. C. Edmondson, "Confronting failure: antecedents and consequences of shared beliefs about failure in organizational work groups," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.22, pp.161-177, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.85
  7. J. A. Cannon-Bowers and E. Salas, "Converse, Shared mental models in expert team decision making," In J. J. Castellan (Ed.). Individual and group decision making: Current issues, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp.221-246, 1993.
  8. J. A. Cannon-Bowers, S. E. Tannenbaum, E. Salas, and C. E. Volpe, "Defining team competencies and establishing team training requirement," In R. Guzzo & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their Training and Performance, Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp.101-124, 1995.
  9. J. A. Cannon-Bowers and E, Salas, "Reflections on shared cognition," Journal of organizational Behavior, Vol.22, pp.195-202, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.82
  10. N. J. Cooke, E. Salas, J. A. Cannon-Bowers, and R. J. Stout, "Measuring team knowledge, Human Factors," Vol.42, No.1, pp.141-173 2000.
  11. N. J. Cooke, P. A. Kiekel, E. Salas, R. J. Stout, and J. Cannon-Bowers, "Measuring team knowledge: A window to the cognitive underpinnings of team performance," Goup Dynamics: Theory Research and Practice, Vol.7, pp.179-199, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.7.3.179
  12. S. M. Fiore, E. Salas, and J. A. Cannon-Bowers, "Group dynamics and shared mental model development," In M. London (Ed.). How people evaluate others in organizations, pp.309-336, 2001.
  13. M. Goos, P. Galbraith, and P. D. Renshaw, "Establishing a community of practice in a secondary mathematics classroom," In L. Burton (Ed.). Learning mathematics: from hierarchies to networks. London: Falmer Press, 1999.
  14. K. Halasek, A pedagogy of possibility: Bakhtinian perspectives on composition studies. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press. 1999.
  15. I. H. Jo, "Shared mental models on the performance of e-learning content development teams," Educational Technology & Society, Vol.15, No.1, pp.289-297, 2012.
  16. T. E. Johnson, Y. Lee, D. L. O'Cornnor, M. K. Khali, and X. H. "Measuring sharedness of team-related knowledge: Design and validation of a shared mental model instrument," Human Resource Development International, Vol.10, No.4, pp.437-454, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678860701723802
  17. T. E. Johnson, M. K. Khali, and J. M. Spector, The role of acquired shared mental models in improving the process of team-based learning. Educational Technology Pub, 2008.
  18. T. E. Johnson, "Team Developmental Processes Impacting Team Performance in Learning Settings," KSET International Conference. Toward the Global Partnership of Educational Technology in Asia, 2011(5).
  19. D. L. Kleinman and D. Serfaty, "Team performance assessment in distributed decision-making," Paper presented in the proceedings of the symposium on interactive networked simulation for training, Orlando, FL, 1989.
  20. R. Klimoski and S, Mohammed, "Team mental model-construct or metaphor," Journal of Management, Vol.20, No.2, pp.403-437, 1994.
  21. J. E. Mathieu, T. S. Heffner, G. F. Goodwin, E. Salas, and J. A. Cannon-Bowers, "The influence of shared mental modles on team process and performance," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.85, No.2, pp.273-283, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.2.273
  22. R. S. Matthew, B. L. Smith, J. MacGregor, and F. Gabelnick, "Creating learning cummunities," In Gaff, J. G., Ratcliff, J. L., & Associates (Eds.). Handbook of the undergraduate curriculum : A comprehensive guide to purposes, structures, practices, and change. pp.457-475, 1997.
  23. D. McInerney and V. McInerney, Educational Psychology: Constructing learning. Sydney: Prentice Hall, 1998.
  24. A. Meiklejohn, The experimetal college. New York: HarperCollins, 1932.
  25. S. Mohammed and B. C. Dumville, Team-based learning: A transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2000.
  26. W. B. Rouse, J. A. Cannon-Bowers, and E. Salas, "The role of mental models in team performance in complex systems," IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernectics, Vol.22, No.6, pp.1296-1307, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1109/21.199457
  27. E. Salas, T. L Dickinson, S. A. Converse, and S. I. Tannenbaum. "Toward an understanding of team performance and training," In R. W. Swezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their training and performance. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp.3-29 1992.
  28. E. Salas, and S, M. Fiore, Team cognition: understanding the factors that drive process and performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2004.
  29. K. L. Smith-Jentsch, G. E. Campbell, and D. M. Milanovich, & A. M. Reynolds, "Measuring teamwork mental models to wupport training needs assessment, development, and evaluation," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.22, pp.179-194, 1998.
  30. Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education, Involvement in learning: Realizing the potential of American higher education. Washington, D. C.: National Institute of Education, 1984.
  31. E. P. Sundstrom, K. P. De Meuse, and D. Furtell, "Work teams: applications and effectiveness," American Psychologist, Vol.45, pp.120-133, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.120
  32. J. Tussman, Experiment at Berkeley. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.
  33. R. M. Vick, M E. Crosby, B. Auernheimenr, and M. K. Iding, "Emergence of shared mental models during distributed teamwork: Integration of distributed cognition traces," Paper presented at the HCI International 2003(10th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction) & 5th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, Crete, Greece. 2003.
  34. E. Wenger, Cultivating communities of practice: Learning as a social system. http://www.co-i-l.com/coil/knowledge-garden/, 1998.
  35. J. Wertsch, Voices of the Mind: A sociocultural approach to mediated action. Harvard University Press, 1991.
  36. J. Wertsch, Voices of collective remembering. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  37. A. Woolfolk, Educational psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 2001.
  38. D. T. Campbell and J. C. Stanley, Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Rand McNally & Company, 1966.
  39. http://ctl.dhu.ac.kr/

Cited by

  1. Influence of Social Presence on Online Community Users' Continuance Intention vol.14, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2014.14.02.131