The Effects of Environmental Adaptation Patterns in the Railway Public Enterprises on Marketing Capabilities and Organizational Performance: Focused on the Market Orientation of Korail and Subway Firms

철도공기업의 환경적응패턴이 마케팅역량과 조직성과에 미치는 영향: 코레일과 지하철 조직의 시장지향성을 중심으로

  • 신택현 (서울과학기술대학교 공과대학 산업정보시스템공학과) ;
  • 김성호 (서울도시철도공사 고객서비스본부)
  • Received : 2011.08.19
  • Accepted : 2012.01.10
  • Published : 2012.02.26


The main purpose of this study is to depict the causal relationship among Market Orientation(MO), Marketing Capabilities(MC), and Organizational Performance(OP) with the moderating effect of Environmental Turbulence(ET), especially comparatively highlighting the differences between Korail and Subway firms. Findings show that there partly existed significant interactions effects between ET and MO in case of subway firms, whereas Korail did not reveal any significant results. When considering the strong relationship between MO and MC shown in the subway firms' case, it can be inferred that subway firms continuously have attempted to adapt to the external environment facing them more flexibly and actively over their counterpart, by which the degree of their MC became positively enhanced over Korail. These results give us some implication that MO should be internalized and also MC should get a higher consideration than ever throughout the railway public enterprises in order to strengthen their performance.


  1. G. Morgan (1989) Creative Organization Theory, SAGE Publications, pp. 72-73.
  2. Mary Jo Hatch (1997) Organization Theory: Modern Symbolic and Post modern Perspectives, Oxford University Press, pp. 76-86.
  3. Paul R. Lawrence, Jay W. Lorsch (1967) Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration, Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press.
  4. Jeffrey Pfeffer, Gerald R. Salancik (1978) The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, New York: Harper & Row.
  5. R.E. Miles, C.C. Snow (1994) Fit, Failure and The Hall of Fame: How Companies Succeed or Fail, The Free Press.
  6. S.H. Kim, K.P. Lee (2005) A Study on Learning Orientation according to Hotels' Operation type and the Environmental Uncertainty, Korean Journal of Hospitality Administration, 14(3), pp. 111-133.
  7. B.J. Jaworski, A.K. Kohli (1993) Market Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences, Journal of Marketing, 57(3), pp. 53-70.
  8. J.H. Ku (2001). The Effect of the Market Orientation on the Customer Orientation and the Financial Output in the Family Restaurant: Focused on the Operation of Foreign Brand Family Restaurant, Korean Journal of Tourism Research, 16(2), pp. 187-204.
  9. G.S. Day (1994) The Capabilities of Market-Driven Organizations, Journal of Marketing, 58, pp. 37-52.
  10. Douglas W. Vorhies, Michael Harker, C.P. Rao (1999) The Capabilities and Performance Advantages of Market-driven Firms, European Journal of Marketing, 33(11/12), pp. 1171-1202.
  11. Ajay K. Kohli, Bernard J. Jaworski, Ajith Kumar (1993) MARKOR: A Measure of Market Orientation, Journal of Marketing Research, 30, pp. 467-77.
  12. J.J. West, M.D. Olsen (1988) Environmental Scanning and its Effect upon Firm Performance: An Exploratory Study of the Food Service Industry, Hospitality Education and Research Journal, 12(2), pp. 127-136.
  13. W.E. Baker, J.M. Sinkula (1999) The Synergistic Effect of Market Orientation and Learning Orientation on Organizational Performance, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), pp. 422-427.
  14. O.C. Farrell (1999) Antecedents and Consequences of a Learning Orientation, Marketing Bulletin, 10(4), pp. 38-51.
  15. W.S. Cho, S.H. Son (2007) The Effect of Market Orientation on Business Performance in the Hotel Industry: Focused on the Gyeonjiu City, Journal of Tourism Sciences, 31(2), pp. 339-358.
  16. K.P. Lee, H.K. Park (2006) An Exploratory Study on Causal Relations with Hotel's Environmental Uncertainty, Learning Orientation and Organizational Performance, Korean Journal of Tourism Research, 20(3), pp. 305-328.
  17. T.H. Shin, S.H. Kim (2010) An Exploratory Study on the Interaction between Learning Orientation and Environmental Turbulence: The Case of Railway Public Organizations, Journal of the Korean Society for Railway, 13(3), pp. 317-326.
  18. N.J. Kang, E.J. Song (2003) An Empirical Study on Market Orientation, Marketing Competence, and Performance in Korean Export Manufacturing Firms, Journal of International Trade Studies, 9(2), pp. 233-254.
  19. Y.I. Yang, J.H. Jung (2006) The Impact of Market Orientation on Marketing Capabilities and Performance in the Hotel Industry, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 21(2), pp. 44-56.
  20. B.H. Kang, S.J. Oh (2008) The Market Orientation's Effect on the Performance: The Mediating Role of the Saplespeople-Related Variables and Customer-Related Variables, Journal of Distribution Research, 13(1), pp. 79-96.
  21. K.Y. Hwang (2010) The Relationships among Market Orientation, Learning Orientation, IT Support for Resource, IT Support for Strategy, and Performance in Export Firms, International Commerce and Information Review, 12(1), pp. 271-295.
  22. S.F. Slater, J.C. Narver (1995) Market Orientation and the Learning Organization, Journal of Marketing, 59, pp. 63-74.
  23. K.H. Chung, J.S. Oh, D.U. Kim (2005) A Study on the Antecedent and Consequent Variables of a Market Orientation, Review of Business and Economics, 18(1), pp. 361-385.
  24. E.Y. Lee, S.B. Lee (2008) A Study on the Effect of Market Orientation on New Product Development and Differentiation: Focusing on the Franchising Business in the Foodservice Industry, Korean Journal of Tourism Research, 23(3), pp. 195-219.
  25. J. Haleblian, S. Finkelstein (1993) Top Management Team Size, CEO Dominance, and Firm Performance: The Moderating Roles of Environmental Turbulence and Discretion, The Academy of Management Journal, 36(4), pp. 844-863.
  26. D. Davis, M. Morris, J. Allen (1991) Perceived Environmental Turbulence and Its Effect on Selected Entrepreneurship, Marketing, and Organizational Characteristics in Industrial Firms, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(1), pp. 43-51.
  27. Jie Yang (the year unidentified) Turning Knowledge Management Strategy into Corporate Growth,
  28. W. Y. Lee (1997) The Effects of Market Orientation Determinants and Market Orientation on Managerial Performance in Korean Public Enterprises, Journal of the Korean Society of Public Enterprise, 8(1), pp. 58-83.
  29. Yoon-Sik Hong (2003) The Effects of Market Orientation and Innovative Technology Orientation on New Product Performance, Ph.D. Dissertation in Business Administration, Graduate School of Korea University.
  30. S.F. Slater, J.C. Narver (1994a) Does Competitive Environment Moderate the Market Orientation-Performance Relationship?, Journal of Marketing, 58, pp. 46-55.
  31. J.C. Narver, S.F. Slater (1990) The Effect of a Market Orientation on Business Profitability, Journal of Marketing, 54, pp.20-35.
  32. S.F. Slater, J.C. Narver (1994b) Market Orientation, Customer Value, and Superior Performance, Business Horizons, 37, pp. 22-28.
  33. A.K. Kohli, B.J. Jaworski (1990) Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications, Journal of Marketing, 54, pp. 1-18.
  34. D.W. Vorhies, N.A. Morgan (1999) Marketing Organization Fit and Performance: An Empirical Test Presented for New Methods for Marketing Strategy Research Special Session Panel Discussion, AMA Winter Educators' Conference.
  35. J.C. Narver, S.F. Slater, B. Tietje (1998) Creating a Market Orientation, Journal of Market Focused Management, 2, pp. 241-255.