Orographic and Ocean Effects Associated with a Heavy Snowfall Event over Yeongdong Region

영동지역 겨울철 강수와 연관된 산악효과와 해양효과

  • Cho, Kuh-Hee (Forecast Policy Division, KMA) ;
  • Kwon, Tae-Young (Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Kangneung-Wonju National University)
  • 조구희 (기상청 예보정책과) ;
  • 권태영 (강릉원주대학교 대기환경과학과)
  • Received : 2011.11.22
  • Accepted : 2012.01.09
  • Published : 2012.03.31


Influences of orographic and ocean effect, which depend on the detailed geographic characteristics, upon winter time (December-February) precipitation in the Yeongdong region are investigated. Most of precipitation events in the Yeongdong region during the wintertime are associated with moist northeasterly (coming from the northeast direction) winds and also the spatial distribution of precipitation shows a great difference between Mountain area (Daegwallyeong) and Coastal area (Gangneung). The linear correlation coefficient between the meteorological variables obtained from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data and precipitation amount for each precipitation type is calculated. Mountain type precipitation is dominated by northeasterly wind speed of the low level (1000 hPa and 925 hPa) and characterized with more precipitation in mountain area than coastal area. However, Coastal type precipitation is affected by temperature difference between ocean and atmosphere, and characterized with more precipitation in coastal area than mountain area. The results are summarized as follows; In the case of mountain type precipitation, the correlation coefficient between wind speed at 1000 hPa (925 hPa) and precipitation amount at Daegwallyeong is 0.60 (0.61). The correlation is statistical significant at 1% level. In the case of coastal type precipitation, the correlation coefficient of temperature difference between ocean and 925 hPa (850 hPa) over the East sea area and precipitation amount at Gangneung is 0.33 (0.34). As for the mountain type precipitation, a detailed analysis was conducted in order to verify the relationship between precipitation amount at Daegwallyeong and low level wind speed data from wind profiler in Gangneung and Buoy in the East Sea. The results also show the similar behavior. This result indicates that mountain type precipitation in the Yeongdong region is closely related with easterly wind speed. Thus, the statistical analysis of the few selected meteorological variables can be a good indicator to estimate the precipitation totals in the Yeongdong region in winter time.


  1. 김지언, 권태영, 이방용, 2005: 영동대설 사례와 관련된 동해상의 현열속과 잠열속 분포 특성. Ocean and Polar Research, 27(3), 237-250.
  2. 류찬수, 정병옥, 1995: 호남 서해안 지방과 영동지방의 강설 특성에 관한 비교 연구. 조선대학교 자연과학연구, 19('96.4), 131-158.
  3. 백선균, 조천호, 김정훈, 송희영, 2005: 윈드프로파일러를 이용한 강수사례분석. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 41(1), 1-16.
  4. 안보영, 권태영, 조구희, 이정순, 이규태, 2007: MODIS 구름 산출물을 이용한 영동대설 관련 구름 특성의 분석. Korean Journal of Remote sensing, 23(2), 71-87.
  5. 이우진, 2006: 일기도와 날씨해석. (주)광교이택스, 24pp, 94pp
  6. 이재규, 이재성, 2003: 동풍계열의 기류와 관련된 영동대설 사례에 대한 수치모의 연구. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 39(4), 475-490.
  7. 이재규, 1999: 대관령과 강릉지역의 강설량 차이를 일으키는 종관 구조 : 사례 연구. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 35(3), 319-334.
  8. 이훈, 이태영, 1994: 영동지역의 폭설 요인. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 30(2), 197-218.
  9. 정광범, 권태영, 김지언, 2004: 영동지역 겨울철 강수와 관련된 하층 바람의 특성. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 40(4), 369-380.
  10. 정성훈, 변건영, 이태영, 2006: 발생기구에 근거한 한반도 강설의 유형 분류. Atmosphere, 16(1), 33-48.
  11. 조구희, 조영준, 권태영, 2004: 겨울철 영동지역 강수사례와 관련된 기단의 특성. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 40(4), 381-393.
  12. 최만규, 1994: 동해상의 한기남하에 따른 영동지방의 대설. 강원기상청, 1-4pp.
  13. 최만규, 1998: 영동산간과 해안지방 대설 생성의 구조적 특성. 강원기상특성집제VII권, 373-395.
  14. Alpert, P., 1986: Mesoscale indexing of the distribution of orographic precipitation over high mountains. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 532-545.<0532:MIOTDO>2.0.CO;2
  15. Anderson T and S. Nilson, 1990: Topographically Induced Convective Snow bands over the Baltic Sea and Their Precipitation Distribution. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5, 299-312.
  16. Carpenter, D. M., 1993: The Lake Effect of the Great Salt Lake: Overview and Forecast Problems. Wea. Forecasting, 8, 181-193.<0181:TLEOTG>2.0.CO;2
  17. Hill, F. F., K. A., Browning, and M/ J. Bader, 1981: Radar and rain gauge observations of orographic rain over south Wales. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 107, 643-670.
  18. Waldstreicher, J. S., 2002: A foot of snow from a 3000-foot cloud: The Ocean-Effect Snowstorm of 14 January 1999, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 19-22.<0019:AFOSFA>2.3.CO;2
  19. Kunz, M., and C. Kottmeier, 2006: Orographic enhancement of precipitation over low mountain ranges. Part : Model formulation and idealized simulations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 1025-1055.
  20. Neiman P. J., F. M. Ralph, A. B. White, D. E. Kingsmill, and P. O. G. Persson, 2002: The statistical relationship between upslope flow and rainfall in California's coastal mountains: Observations during CALJET. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 1468-1494.<1468:TSRBUF>2.0.CO;2
  21. Pandey, G. R., D. R. Cayan, and K. P. Georgakakos, 1999: Precipitation structure in the Sierra Nevada of California during winter. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12019-12030.
  22. Rhea, J. O., 1978: Orographic precipitation model for hydrometeorological use. Ph. D. dissertation, Dept. of Atmospheric Science Paper 287, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 198 pp.

Cited by

  1. Satellite Image Analysis of Low-Level Stratiform Cloud Related with the Heavy Snowfall Events in the Yeongdong Region vol.25, pp.4, 2015,
  2. The Study of Correlations between Air-Sea Temperature Difference and Precipitation and between Wind and Precipitation in the Yeongdong Coastal Region in Relation to the Siberian High vol.26, pp.1, 2016,
  3. Interannual variability of winter precipitation linked to upper ocean heat content off the east coast of Korea pp.08998418, 2017,
  4. Synoptic Environment Associated with Extreme Heavy Snowfall Events in the Yeongdong Region vol.24, pp.3, 2014,
  5. Characteristics of Meteorological Elements Change Associated with Heavy Snowfall in the Youngdong Area, Gangwon Province in the Past Five Years vol.10, pp.3, 2019,
  6. Impacts of the East Asian Winter Monsoon and Local Sea Surface Temperature on Heavy Snowfall over the Yeongdong Region vol.32, pp.20, 2019,