항공교통관제사의 피로.스트레스 요인

Fatigue and Stress of Air Traffic Controllers in Korea

  • 투고 : 2012.02.24
  • 심사 : 2012.03.09
  • 발행 : 2012.03.31


Air traffic controllers often experience fatigue and stress on the job due to work-related factors. Performance impairment resulting from fatigue and stress is an important concern for aviation safety. The goal of this research was to investigate fatigue and stress factors for air traffic controllers. The research involved an extensive literature review of fatigue and stress in the air traffic control environment and surveyed fatigue and job stress level of Korean air traffic controllers compared to other occupation groups. Results of survey showed that fatigue and stress levels of air traffic controllers were significantly higher than other occupation groups. Specially air traffic controllers reported that night work created high level of fatigue and perceived that physical environment and job demand induced high level of stress. In addition, implications for fatigue and stress management were discussed.


연구 과제번호 : 항공종사자 인적요인의 안전영향 및 안전관리방안 연구

연구 과제 주관 기관 : 국토해양부


  1. 장세진. (2000). 건강통계자료 수집 및 측정의 표준화. 서울: 계축문화사
  2. 하미나, 장세진, 조정진, 조성일, 김성아, 우종민, 이채용, 고상백, 김수영, 김정연, 강동묵, 이 숙. (2003). 한국인 직무 스트레스 측정도구의 개발및 표준화 연구. 한국산업안전공단 산업안전보건연구원.
  3. Baader, E.W. & Graf, K.O. (1958). Gesundheitser -hebungen bei den Bundesanstalten 'Deutscher Wetterdienst' und 'Flugsicherung' Gutachten im Auftrag des Bundesverkehrsministeriums.
  4. Baker, A., Heiler, K., & Ferguson, S.A. (2003). The impact of roster changes on absenteeism and incident frequency in an Australian coal mine. Occup Environ Med, 60, 43-49.
  5. Bourgeois-Bourgine, S., Cabon, P., Gounelle, C., Mollard, R., Coblentz, A. & Speyer, J.J. (1999). Fatigue in aviation: Point of view of French pilots. 4th International Conference on Fatigue and Transportation.
  6. Collet, C., Averty, P., Dittmar, A. (2009). Autonomic nervous system and subjective ratings of strain in air-traffic control. Applied Ergonomics, 40, 23-32.
  7. Costa, G. (1999). Fatigue and biological rhythms, in D.J. Garland, J.A. Wise, and V.D. Hopkin (Eds), Handbook of Aviation Human Factors, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., pp. 235-255.
  8. Costa, G., Schallenberg, G., Ferracin, A., and Gaffuri, E. (1995). Psychophysical conditions of air traffic controllers evaluated by the standard shiftwork index. Work & Stress, 9(2/3), 281-288.
  9. CRATCOH (1990). Report of a Committee on Regulation of Air Traffic Controllers' Hours to the Civil Aviation Authority. Cheltenham, UK: Civil Aviation Authority.
  10. Cruz, C. and Della Rocco, P. (1995). Sleep patterns in air traffic controllers working rapidly rotating shifts: A field study. Final report DOT/FAA/AM-95/12, Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal Aviation.
  11. Della Rocco, P. and Cruz, C. (1995). Shift work, age, and performance: investigation of the 2-2-1 shift schedule used in air traffic control facilities I. The sleep/wake cycle. Final report DOT/FAA/AM-95/19, Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
  12. Dionisio, A. N. (2010). Air traffic controller fatigue and human error. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.
  13. Edwards, T., Sharples, S., Wilson, J. R., Kirwan, B., Shorrock, S.T. (2010). Towards a multifactorial human performance envelope model in air traffic control. Presented at the Eurocontrol/FAA research and development conference, 19th-20th October, Bretigny-sur-Orge: France.
  14. Fothergill, S., & Neal, A. (2008). An evaluation of the effect of workload on conflict decision making in air traffic control. Australian Journal of Psychology Supplement, 60, 4.
  15. Folkard, S. & Tucker, P. (2003). Shiftwork, safety and productivity. Occupational Medicine, 53, 95-101.
  16. Galster, S.M., Duley, J.A., Masalonis, A.J., & Parasuraman, R. (2001). Air traffic controller performance and workload under mature free flight: Conflict detection and resolution of aircraft self-separation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11, 71-93.
  17. Heslegrave, R.J. (1998). Fatigue. Performance impairment, sleep and ageing in shiftwork operations. In: L. Hartley (Ed): Managing Fatigue in Transportation. Amsterdam: Pergamon/Elsevier Science, 167-185.
  18. Langan-Fox, J., Canty, J.M., & Sankey, M.J. (2009). Human-automation teams and adaptable control for future air traffic management. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39, 894-903.
  19. Macpherson, G., & Tvaryanas, A. (2009). Fatigue in pilots of remotely piloted aircraft before and after shift work adjustment. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 80(5), 454-461.
  20. Martinussen, M., Richardsen, A.M. (2006) Air traffic controller burnout: survey responses regarding job demands, job resources, and health. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 77, 422-8.
  21. Meyer, R.E. (1973). Stress and the air traffic controller. Revue de Medecine aeronautique et spatiale, 49, 97-106.
  22. Ming, E. E., Adler, G. K., Kessler, R. C., Fogg, L. F., Matthews, K. A., Herd, J. A., et al. (2004). Cardiovascular reactivity to work stress predicts subsequent onset of hypertension: The Air Traffic Controller Health Change Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 459-465.
  23. Rhodes, W., Heslegrave, R., Ujimoto, K.V. et al. (1996). Impact of shiftwork and overtime on air traffic controllers - Phase II: Analysis of shift schedule effects on sleep, performance, physiology and social issues. Final report TP12816E, Transportation Development Centre, Transport Canada.
  24. Rhodes, W., Szlapetis, I., Hahn, K., Heslegrave, R. & Ujimoto, K.V. (1994). A study of the impact of shiftwork and overtime on air traffic controllers -Phase I: Determining appropriate research tools
  25. Rohmert, W. & Rutenfranz, J. (1972). Benutzerhandbuch zu den Untersuchungen zur psycho-physischen Belastung und Beanspruchung von Fluglotsen. Darmstadt: Institut fur Arbeitswissenschaft der Technischen Universitat.
  26. Rosekind, M.R., Graeber, R.C., Dinges, D.F. et al. (1994). Crew Factors in Flight Operations IX: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations. Moffett Field CA: NASA Ames Research Center Technical Memorandum No: 108839.
  27. Spencer, M.B., Rogers, A.S. and Birch, C.L. (1999). A diary study of fatigue in air traffic controllers during a period of high workload. Shiftwork International Newsletter 16, p.88.
  28. Spencer, M. B., Rogers, A. S., & Stone, B. M. (1997). A Review of the Current Scheme for the Regulation of Air Traffic Controllers Hours (SCRATCOH). Farnborough, UK: Defense Evaluation and Research Agency PLSD/CHS5/CR/97/020.
  29. Transportation Development Centre, Transport Canada. (2000). Fatigue in air traffic controllers: Literature Review.
  30. Transport Canada. (2007). Fatigue Risk Management System for Canadian Aviation - FRMS Toolbox http://www.
  31. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). (1999). The role of shift work and fatigue in air traffic control operational errors and incidents.
  32. Vogt, J. & Kastner, M. (2002). Tinnituserkrankungen bei Fluglotsen: Eine klinisch-arbeitspsychologische Studie. Zeitschrift für Arbeits-und Organisationspsychologie, 46(1), 35-44
  33. Willems, B., & Hah, S. (2008). Future En Route Workstation Study (FEWS II): Part 1 - Automation Integration Research (DOT/FAA/TC-08/14,II). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.