Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution Runoff from Urban Land Uses in South Korea



Rhee, Han-Pil;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Lee, Seung-Jae;Choi, Jae-Ho;Son, Yeong-Kwon

  • 투고 : 2011.07.06
  • 심사 : 2012.03.07
  • 발행 : 2012.03.30


A long-term nationwide nonpoint-source pollution monitoring program was initiated by the Ministry of Environment Republic of Korea (ME) in 2007. Monitoring devices including rain gauges, flow meters, and automatic samplers were installed in monitoring sites to collect dynamic runoff data in 2008-2009. More than 10 rainfall events with three or more antecedent dry days were monitored per year. More than 10 samples were collected and analyzed per event. So far, five land use types (single family, apartments, education facilities, power plants, and other public facilities) have been monitored 23 to 24 times each. Characterization of the runoff from different land use types will aid unit load estimation in Korea and hopefully in other countries with similar land use. The monitoring results will be reported regularly at national and international levels.


Event mean concentration;Nonpoint source pollution;Unit loads;Urban runoff monitoring


  1. Ministry of Environment. Sewage statistics 2006 [Internet]. Gwacheon: Ministry of Environment; c2007 [cited 2012 Mar 9]. Available from:
  2. Ministry of Environment. Long-term monitoring and control measures for nonpoint source pollution from major land uses. Gwacheon: Ministry of Environment; 2008.
  3. Korea Rural Community and Agriculture Corporation (KRC). The survey of agricultural water quality network. Euwang: KRC; 2007.
  4. Novotny V, Chesters G. Handbook of nonpoint pollution: sources and management. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1981.
  5. Ministry of Environment. Nonpoint source pollution management handbook. Gwacheon: Ministry of Environment; 2006.
  6. Bolstad PV, Swank WT. Cumulative impacts of landuse on water quality in a southern Appalachian watershed. J. Am. Water Res. Assoc. 1997;33:519-533.
  7. Gburek WJ, Folmar GJ. Flow and chemical contributions to streamflow in an upland watershed: a baseflow survey. J. Hydrol. 1999;217:1-18.
  8. Lenat DR, Crawford JK. Effects of land use on water quality and aquatic biota of three North Carolina Piedmont streams. Hydrobiologia 1994;294:185-199.
  9. Liu AJ, Tong ST, Goodrich JA. Land use as a mitigation strategy for the water-quality impacts of global warming: a scenario analysis on two watersheds in the Ohio River Basin. Environ. Eng. Pol. 2000;2:65-76.
  10. Omernik JM, Abernathy AR, Male LM. Stream nutrient levels and proximity of agricultural and forest land to streams: some relationships. J. Soil Water Conservat. 1981;36:227-231.
  11. Tong ST, Chen W. Modeling the relationship between land use and surface water quality. J. Environ. Manag. 2002;66:377-393.
  12. Hwang SJ, Lee SW, Son JY, Park GA, Kim SJ. Moderating effects of the geometry of reservoirs on the relationship between urban land use and water quality. Landsc. Urban Plann. 2007;82:175-183.
  13. Novotny V. Water quality: diffuse pollution and watershed management. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
  14. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). National management measures to control nonpoint source pollution from urban areas. Washington: Water Planning Division, US EPA; 2005. EPA no.: 841B05004.
  15. Ministry of Environment. The methods for survey of stormwater runoff. Gwacheon: Ministry of Environment; 2009.
  16. Bang KW, Lee JH, Yu MJ. A study of the runoff characteristics of nonpoint sources in small urban watersheds. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 1997;13:79-99.
  17. Shin CM, Choi JY, Park CH. Characteristics of non-point pollution discharge with land use in urban area. J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng. 2004;26:729-735.
  18. Bertrand-Krajewski J, Chebbo G, Saget A. Distribution of pollutant mass vs volume in stormwater discharges and the first flush phenomenon. Water Res. 1998;32:2341-2356.
  19. Field R, O'Shea ML. Integrated stormwater management. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers; 1993.
  20. Wu JS, Allan CJ, Saunders WL, Evett JB. Characterization and pollutant loading estimation for highway runoff. J. Environ. Eng. 1998;124:584-592.
  21. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Result of the nationwide urban runoff program. Vol. 1. Washington: Water Planning Division, US EPA; 1983. EPA no.: 832R83112.
  22. Ellis JB. Pollutional aspects of urban runoff. In: Torno HC, Marsalek J, Desbordes M, eds. Urban runoff pollution. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1986.
  23. Deletic A. The first flush load of urban surface runoff. Water Res. 1998;32:2462-2470.
  24. Shin ES, Choi JY, Lee DH. Estimation of non-point source pollutant unit - loads in surface runoff considering land - use and basin characteristics. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 2001;17:137-146.

피인용 문헌

  1. 1. Factors affecting flocculation performance of synthetic polymer for turbidity control vol.02, pp.01, 2013, doi:10.4491/eer.2012.17.1.047
  2. 2. Effectiveness of Settling Treatment System to Reduce Urban Nonpoint Source Pollutant Load by First Flush vol.39, pp.3, 2017, doi:10.4491/eer.2012.17.1.047


연구 과제 주관 기관 : Han River Environment Research Center