DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of tDCS Stimulation for Improving Working Memory on Stroke Patients' EEG Variation

작업기억의 향상을 위한 tDCS 자극이 뇌졸중 환자의 뇌파변화에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2012.05.29
  • Accepted : 2012.07.03
  • Published : 2012.07.28

Abstract

This study was conducted so as to examine which change tDCS (Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation) for improving working memory can make on the EEC of stroke patients. Among the patients who suffered for more than 6 months by hemiparalysis caused by stroke, 20 patients selected by MMSE and DST were randomly divided into I group (10 patients) fulfilled by only CCT and II group (10 patients) fulfilled by both tDCS and CCT for total 4 weeks, 30 minutes per a day, three times per a week. For examining EEC variation, the absolute spectrum power was calculated by three bands (${\theta}$; 4~8 Hz, lower ${\alpha}$; 8~10.5 Hz, upper ${\alpha}$;10.5~13 Hz) during the task of words, photos and mental calculation with EEC test, before the arbitration, after 2 weeks and after 4 weeks, so the rate of increase and decrease (%) for the reference EEC was obtained. As the results, the first, particular aspects different one another in three bands were detected according to the measuring period and task. The second, in the forth week, there was only a significant difference in lower ${\alpha}$-power of all tasks. Therefore, through the procedure measuring EEC of this study, the degree of working memory's damage can be expressed by numerical value and tDCS should be additionally helpful for brain damaged patients' perception rehabilitation.

Keywords

Stroke;EEG;tDCS;Working Memory

References

  1. B. Zoltan and E. Siev, Vision, perception, and cognition: a manual for the evaluation and treatment of the neurologically impaired adult, Slack Incorporated, 1996.
  2. 노승호, "외상성 뇌 손상 환자의 인지기능장애", 원광정신의학회지, 제15권, 제2호, pp.15-26, 1999.
  3. 김훈주, 이성자, 감경윤, "컴퓨터-보조 인지재활 프로그램(computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation)에 관한 고찰", 치매작업치료학회지, 제2권, 제2 호, pp.35-46, 2008.
  4. 이윤미, 컴퓨터 보조 인지재활훈련과 균형운동이 노인의 인지, 시지각, 손 기능, 균형 및 뇌파에 미치는 효과, 대구대학교 대학원 박사학위논문, 2011.
  5. 온석훈, 비침습적 경두개 뇌자극술이 정상인의 인지 기능 향상에 미치는 영향, 연세대학교 대학원 석사학위논문, 2007.
  6. M. C. Ridding and U. Ziemann, "Determinants of the induction of cortical plasticity by noninvasive brain stimulation in healthy subjects," J of physiology, Vol.588, No.13, pp.2291-2304, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.190314
  7. A. Gazzaley, and A. C. Nobre, Top-down modulation: bridging selective attention and working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2011.
  8. G. Schlaug, V. Renga, and D. Nair, "Transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke recovery," Archives of neurology, Vol.65, No.12, pp.1571, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.65.12.1571
  9. F. Fregni, P. S. Boggio, M. Nitsche, F. Bermpohl, A. Antal, E. Feredoes, M. A. Marcolin, S. P. Rigonatti, M. T. A. Silva, and W. Paulus, "Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory," Experimental Brain Research, Vol.166, No.1, pp.23-30, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-005-2334-6
  10. E. K. Kang, M. J. Baek, S. Y. Kim, and N. J. Paik, "Non-invasive cortical stimulation improves post-stroke attention decline," Restorative neurology and neuroscience, Vol.27, No.6, pp.647-652, 2009.
  11. W. Klimesch, "EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis," Brain research reviews, Vol.29, No.2, pp.169-195, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00056-3
  12. W. Klimesch, M. Doppelmayr, and S. Hanslmayr, "Upper alpha ERD and absolute power: their meaning for memory performance," Progress in brain research, Vol.159, pp.151-165, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(06)59010-7
  13. K. Van der Hiele, A. A. Vein, R. Reijntjes, R. G. J. Westendorp, E. Bollen, M. A. van Buchem, J. G. van Dijk, and H. A. M. Middelkoop, "EEG correlates in the spectrum of cognitive decline," Clinical neurophysiology, Vol.118, No.9, pp.1931-1939, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2007.05.070
  14. M. Kramer, Patterns of mental disorders among the elderly residents of eastern Baltimore. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1985.
  15. 강연욱, 진주희, 나덕렬, "숫자 외우기 검사(Digit Span Test)의 노인 규준 연구", 한국심리학회지, 제21권, 제4호, pp.911-922, 2002.
  16. M. K. Cogpack, The Cognitive Training Package Manual. Marker software: Heidelberg, Ladenburg, 2007.
  17. K. Marker, COGPACK, Program Information. Marker software: Heidelberg & Ladenburg, 2010.
  18. S. C. Andrews, K. E. Hoy, P. G. Enticott, Z. J. Daskalakis, and P. B. Fitzgerald, "Improving working memory: the effect of combining cognitive activity and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," Brain stimulation, Vol.4, No.2, pp.84-89, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2010.06.004
  19. A. O. Constantinescu, A. Ilie, M. Moldovan, and C. J. Stagg, "Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): a promising new tool to facilitate rehabilitation of manual dexterity after stroke," Romanian Journal of Neurology, Vol.9, No.3, pp.118-123, 2010.
  20. M. B. Iyer, U. Mattu, J. Grafman, M. Lomarev, S. Sato, and E. M. Wassermann, "Safety and cognitive effect of frontal DC brain polarization in healthy individuals," Neurology, Vol.64, No.5, pp.872-875, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000152986.07469.E9
  21. K. van der Hiele, A. A. Vein, C. G. Kramer, R. H. Reijntjes, M. A. van Buchem, R. G. Westendorp, E. L. Bollen, J. G. van Dijk, and H. A. iddelkoop, "Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment," Neurobiol Aging, Vol.28, No.1, pp.85-90, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.11.006
  22. M. I. Nunez-Pena, "Effects of training on the arithmetic problem-size effect: an event-related potential study," Exp Brain Res, Vol.190, No.1, pp.105-110, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-008-1501-y
  23. J. Gregoire and M. Van der Linden, "Effect of age on forward and backward digit spans," Aging neuropsychology, and cognition, Vol.4, No.2, pp.14-149, 1997.
  24. J. J. Ryan, S. J. Lopez, and A. M. Paolo, "Digit span performance of persons 75-96 years of age: Base rates and associations with selected demographic variables," Psychological Assessment; Psychological Assessment, Vol.8, No.3, p.324, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.8.3.324
  25. 염태호, 박영숙, 오경자, 김정규, 이영호, 한국판 웩슬러 지능검사(K-WAIS) 의 실시요강, 서울: 한국 가이던스, 1992
  26. 조영남, 전산화 인지재활이 뇌졸중 노인의 인지기능에 미치는 효과, 대구대학교 대학원 박사학위논문, 2010.
  27. 심제명, 김환희, 이용석, "전산화 신경인지기능 프로그램(COMCOG, CNT)을 이용한 뇌졸중 환자의 기억력과 주의력 증진효과", 대한물리치료학회지, 제19권, 제4호, pp.25-32, 2007.
  28. A. Lundqvist, K. Grundström, K. Samuelsson, and J. Rönnberg, "Computerized training of working memory in a group of patients suffering from acquired brain injury," Brain Injury, Vol.24, No.10, pp.1173-1183, 2010. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2010.498007
  29. H. Westerberg, H. Jacobaeus, T. Hirvikoski, P. Clevberger, M. L. Östensson, A. Bartfai, and T. Klingberg, "Computerized working memory training after stroke-A pilot study," Brain Injury, Vol.21, No.1, pp.21-29, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050601148726
  30. 오병훈, 김영기, 김지혜, 신윤식, "인지재활훈련이 노인성 치매 환자의 인지 기능에 미치는 영향", 신경정신의학, 제42권, 제4호, pp.514-519, 2003.
  31. M. Hofmann, A. Rösler, W. Schwarz, F. Müller-Spahn, K. Kräuchi, C. Hock, and E. Seifritz, "Interactive computer-training as a therapeutic tool in Alzheimer's disease," Comprehensive psychiatry, Vol.44, No.3, pp.213-219, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-440X(03)00006-3
  32. S. McGurk, E. Twamley, D. Sitzer, G. McHugo, and K. Mueser, "A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.164, No.12, pp.1791-1802, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07060906
  33. W. Klimesch, M. Doppelmayr, H. Russegger, and T. Pachinger, "Theta band power in the human scalp EEG and the encoding of new information," Neuroreport, Vol.7, No.7, p.1235, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199605170-00002
  34. M. I. Posner, Psychobiology of attention. Handbook of psychobiology, pp.441-480, 1975.
  35. T. Tanabe, K. Ikemura, H. Sawai, and E. Koyama, "Preliminary Study of a Physiological Evaluation Method on Attentiveness Concentration during Mental Arithmetic; Correlation between Task Performance and Physiological Indices," J of physiological anthropology, Vol.26, No.5, pp.553-557, 2007. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.26.553
  36. L. Zheng, Z. Jiang, and E. Yu, "Alpha spectral power and coherence in the patients with mild cognitive impairment during a three-level working memory task," J of Zhejiang University-Science B, Vol.8, No.8, pp.584-592, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0584
  37. 최세영, "대뇌피질에서의 시냅스가소성과Critical period", KSBMB News, Vol.23, No.4, pp.288-295, 2003.
  38. A. Antal, D. Terney, C. Poreisz, and W. Paulus, "Towards unravelling task‐related modulations of neuroplastic changes induced in the human motor cortex," European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol.26, No.9, pp.2687-2691, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05896.x
  39. 김기도, 심기철, 김경윤, "국소 허혈성 뇌손상 흰쥐 모델에서 경두개직류전기자극이 앞다리 운동 감각 기능 증진에 미치는 효과", 한국컨텐츠학회지, 제11권, 제4호, pp.273-282, 2011.
  40. P. C. Gandiga, F. C. Hummel, and L. G. Cohen, "Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double-blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation," Clinical neurophysiology, Vol.117, No.4, pp.845-850, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2005.12.003
  41. K. Polanowska and J. Seniów, "Influence of transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive functioning of patients with brain injury," Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska, Vol.44, No.6, p.580, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3843(14)60156-0
  42. P. S. Boggio, F. Fregni, C. Valasek, S. Ellwood, R. Chi, J. Gallate, A. Pascual-Leone, and A. Snyder, "Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories," PloS one, Vol.4, No.3, p.e4959, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004959
  43. T. P. Zanto, M. T. Rubens, A. Thangavel, and A. Gazzaley, "Causal role of the prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of visual processing and working memory," Nature neuroscience, Vol.14, No.5, pp.656-661, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2773
  44. R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg, "Imaging cognition II: An empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies," J of cognitive neuroscience, Vol.12, No.1, pp.1-47, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1162/08989290051137585
  45. Y. Sakurai, T. Momose, M. Iwata, Y. Sasaki, and I. Kanazawa, "Activation of prefrontal and posterior superior temporal areas in visual calculation," J of the neurological sciences, Vol.139, No.1, pp.89-94, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(96)00039-1
  46. M. Rosenberg-Lee, M. Barth, and V. Menon, What difference does a year of schooling make?: Maturation of brain response and connectivity between 2nd and 3rd grades during arithmetic problem solving. NeuroImage, 2011.
  47. 이정모, 강은주, 김민식, 감기택, 김정오, 박태진, 김성일, 신현정, 이광오, 김영진, 이재호, 도경수, 이영애, 박주용, 곽호완, 박창호, 이재식, 인지심리학, 학지사, 2009.