Self-rated ability to follow instructions for four mental states described in yoga texts

Ramachandra, Raghavendra Bhat;Telles, Shirley;Hongasandra, Nagendra Rama Rao

  • 투고 : 2012.06.05
  • 심사 : 2012.08.23
  • 발행 : 2012.08.31


There were no studies available measuring the ability to follow instructions for meditation. Hence, the present study was planned to assess the ability to follow instructions for the four mental states viz., cancalata (random thinking), ekagrata (non-meditative concentration), dharana (focused meditation) and dhyana (defocused meditation or effortless meditation) described in yoga texts. Sixty male volunteers with ages ranging from 18 to 31 years (group mean age ${\pm}$ S.D., $22.78{\pm}2.73$) participated in the study. They were assessed using a visual analog scale immediately after each of the four states on four different days. The results showed that following dharana, scores on the visual analog scale were significantly lower compared to those related to cancalata, ekagrata and dhyana. Hence, dharana is the most difficult of the four states.


four mental states;cancalata;ekagrata;dharana;dhyana;visual analog scale


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연구 과제 주관 기관 : Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)